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Comet assay reveals no genotoxicity risk of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles

Authors

  • Slavomira Doktorovova,

    1. Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila-Real, Portugal
    2. Department of Biology and Environment, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
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  • Amélia M. Silva,

    1. Department of Biology and Environment, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
    2. Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (CITAB-UTAD), Vila-Real, Portugal
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  • Isabel Gaivão,

    1. The Veterinary and Animal Research Centre, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (CECAV-UTAD), Vila Real, Portugal
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  • Eliana B. Souto,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila-Real, Portugal
    2. Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto, Portugal
    • Correspondence to: Eliana B. Souto, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, Office S.1, Locker S.27; 4200–150 Porto, Portugal. Email: eliana@ufp.edu.pt

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  • João P. Teixeira,

    1. National Health Institute Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Porto, Portugal
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  • Paula Martins-Lopes

    1. Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila-Real, Portugal
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ABSTRACT

Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) are colloidal carriers for genes or drugs, particularly lipophilic drugs. Several reports exist on their high efficiency, but only a few studies report the effect of cSLNs on living cells. In the present work, internalization, cell viability (alamar blue assay) and genotoxic potential (alkaline comet assay) of three cSLN formulations (A–C) were evaluated in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. cSLN showed an average hydrodynamic diameter (z-ave) of 141–222 nm, zeta-potential of 55.0–72.5 mV and polidispersity indices (PdI) of 0.336–0.421. Dispersion in physiological buffers increased z-ave and PdI. 0.01 mg ml–1 cSLN unaffected cell viability, but 1.0 mg ml–1 significantly decreased it, being cSLN-C (Compritol-based) the most toxic and HepG2 the most affected. DNA damage was not significantly increased by 0.1 mg ml–1 cSLN but damage was observed at 1.0 mg ml–1 cSLN-C. Thus, no genotoxicity is to be expected at concentrations that do not reduce cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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