Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Journal of Applied Toxicology

January 2010

Volume 30, Issue 1

Pages 1–90

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Toxicological Update
    1. Molluscicides from some common medicinal plants of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India (pages 1–7)

      Sunil Kumar Singh, Ram P. Yadav and Ajay Singh

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1498

      Many aquatic snails act as intermediate hosts for the larvae of trematodes, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which cause the diseases fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. The WHO has tested several thousands of synthetic compounds for the control of the snail host. Although effective, these molluscicides have so far not proved themselves to be entirely satisfactory. With a growing awareness of environmental pollution, efforts are being made to discover molluscicidal products of plant origin.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Toxicological Update
    1. Mutagenic risks induced by homemade hair straightening creams with high formaldehyde content (pages 8–14)

      José L. Mazzei, Érika V. Figueiredo, Lia J. da Veiga, Claudia A. F. Aiub, Pedro I. C. Guimarães and Israel Felzenszwalb

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1464

      Mutagenic risks associated with the uncontrolled addition of formaldehyde in three of homemade hair straightening creams were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analyses revealed distinct compositions. Using HPLC, 1.6–10.5%w/v formaldehyde was quantified. All creams showed antibacterial activity and one induced mutagenic responses in Salmonella/microsome for Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain and in SOS chromotest for Escherichia coli PQ37 and OG100 strains. These genotoxic responses were more intense than for only formaldehyde, suggesting that unspecified components might have genotoxic potential or a synergism occurs.

    2. N-acetylcysteine improves renal hemodynamics in rats with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (pages 15–21)

      Aly M. Abdelrahman, Suhail Al Salam, Ahmed S AlMahruqi, Ishaq S. Al husseni, Mohamed A Mansour and Badreldin H. Ali

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1465

      This work investigated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on renal hemodynamics in cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. The results show that administration of i.p. NAC (500 mg kg<σ?Π>−1<?σ?Π> per day for 9 days) reversed the renal hemodynamic changes as well as the biochemical and histopathological indices of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in WKY rats.

    3. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Baccharis dracunculifolia extract on V79 cells by the comet assay (pages 22–28)

      Carla Carolina Munari, Jacqueline Morais Alves, Jairo Kenupp Bastos and Denise Crispim Tavares

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1467

      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia ethyl acetate extract (Bd-EAE) on V79 cells by the comet assay. The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of DNA damage in cultures treated with 50.0 and 100.0 µg/mL Bd-EAE. Regarding its antigenotoxic potential, Bd-EAE reduced the frequency of DNA damage induced by methyl methanesulfonate. However, this chemopreventive activity depended on the concentrations and treatment regimens used.

    4. Long-term exposure to bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) inhibits growth of guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) (pages 29–33)

      Vito R.T. Zanotelli, Stephan C.F. Neuhauss and Markus U. Ehrengruber

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1468

      The influence of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer contaminating aquatic environments, on guppy fish was examined. Less than one week old guppies were continuously incubated with 0.1–10 µg l−1 DEHP, resulting in a dose-dependent inhibition of fish length and weight, rather than Fulton's condition factor, at 14–91 days of treatment. Both male and female fish were affected, with up to 15 vs 40% reduced body length, and 40 vs 70% reduced body weight for 1 and 10 µg l−1 DEHP, respectively.

    5. Metabolic fate of ultratrace levels of GeCl4 in the rat and in vitro studies on its basal cytotoxicity and carcinogenic potential in Balb/3T3 and HaCaT cell lines (pages 34–41)

      E. Sabbioni, S. Fortaner, S. Bosisio, M. Farina, R. Del Torchio, J. Edel and M. Fischbach

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1469

      The metabolic fate of GeCl4 was investigated in vivo in rats and in vitro in immortalized human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts cell lines. The element was poorly retained in rat tissues 24 h post injection. A significant part of Ge was still present in the kidney after 7 days. Bone seems the site of storage for Ge at longer times. At the highest concentration tested GeCl4 failed to induce morphological neoplastic transformation suggesting for the first time that a cationic form of Ge ions has no carcinogenic potential.

    6. Approach to estimation of absorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons diffusing from interior materials in an automobile cabin by inhalation toxicokinetic analysis in rats (pages 42–52)

      Toshiaki Yoshida

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1470

      The amounts of seven selected aliphatic hydrocarbons absorbed by a car driver were estimated by evaluating their inhalation toxicokinetics in rats. The absorption amounts estimated during a 2 h drive were as follows: 6 µg/60 kg of human body weight for methylcyclopentane (interior concentration: 23 µg/m3), 5 µg for 2-methylpentane (36 µg/m3), 13 µg for n-hexane (65 µg/m3), 51 µg for n-heptane (150 µg/m3), 26 µg for 2,4-dimethylheptane (97 µg/m3), 17 µg for n-nonane (25 µg/m3) and 49 µg for n-decane (68 µg/m3).

    7. Fetal and offspring arrhythmia following exposure to nicotine during pregnancy (pages 53–58)

      Yu Feng, Mao Caiping, Cao Li, Rui Can, Xu Feichao, Zhao Li and Xu Zhice

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1471

      Although recent studies have demonstrated prenatal nicotine can increase cardiovascular risk in the offspring, it is unknown whether exposure to nicotine during pregnancy also may be a risk for development of arrhythmia in the offspring. In addition, in previous studies of fetal arrhythmia affected by smoking, only two patterns, bradycardia and tachycardia, were observed. The present study examined acute effects of maternal nicotine on the fetal arrhythmia in utero, and chronic influence on offspring arrhythmia at adult stage following prenatal exposure to nicotine.

    8. Liquid–air partition coefficients of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC152a), 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC143a), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a), 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane (HFC125) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC245fa) (pages 59–62)

      Lena Ernstgård, Birger Lind, Melvin E. Andersen and Gunnar Johanson

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1473

      Tissue–air and tissue–tissue partition coefficients (λ) are essential to characterize the uptake and disposition of volatile substances, e.g. by physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling. Highly volatile chemicals, including many hydrofluorocarbons, have low solubility in liquid media. These characteristics pose challenges for determining λ values. A modified head-space vial equilibrium method was used to determine λ values for five widely used hydrofluorocarbons.

    9. Fluoride-induced changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, neurological variables and tissue histopathology of rats (pages 63–73)

      Swapnila Chouhan, Vinay Lomash and S.J.S. Flora

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1474

      Dose dependent effects of fluoride on biochemical variables suggestive of changes in haem biosynthesis pathway, oxidative stress and neurological supported by histopathological observations were studied in rats. The data indicates significant inhibition of blood ALAD, ALAS, GSH and increase in GSSG and TBARS. These changes were accompanied by depletion in whole brain biogenic amine levels and a dose dependent increase in fluoride concentration. These changes were more pronounced at lower concentrations of fluoride compared to higher fluoride dose. Biochemical changes were supported by the histological observations which also revealed that at high concentrations of fluoride, toxic effects and damage to organs were more pronounced.

    10. Cytotoxicity and biological effects of functional nanomaterials delivered to various cell lines (pages 74–83)

      Meena Mahmood, Daniel A. Casciano, Teodora Mocan, Cornel Iancu, Yang Xu, Lucian Mocan, Dana Todea Iancu, Enkeleda Dervishi, Zhongrui Li, Mustafa Abdalmuhsen, Alexandru R. Biris, Nawab Ali, Paul Howard and Alexandru S. Biris

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1475

      This research article presents the biological and morphological changes observed in osteocytic and cancer cells after being exposed to various nanomaterials. It has been proved that in a very short time the cells did uptake all the nanomaterials, process which was found to induce changes in the death rates, shapes and sizes of the cells. Moreover, when the nanomaterials were delivered along with chemotherapeutic agents, the cellular death rate increased drastically as compared to the case when the nanomaterials were delivered alone.

  3. Toxicological Update

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Toxicological Update
    1. Cadmium chloride exposure modifies amino acid daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus in adult male rat (pages 84–90)

      A. Caride, B. Fernández-Pérez, T. Cabaleiro, G. Bernárdez and A. Lafuente

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1472

      In the present study we investigated possible effects of cadmium exposure on the daily pattern of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine levels in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult male rats. Animals were treated with 25 or 50 mg l−1 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the drinking water for 30 days. Rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. CdCl2 exposure modified aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, GABA and taurine daily pattern in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

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