Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Journal of Applied Toxicology

October 2010

Volume 30, Issue 7

Pages 617–718

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Book Reviews
    1. Adrenocortical hypertrophy: establishing cause and toxicological significance (pages 617–626)

      Philip W. Harvey and Catherine Sutcliffe

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1569

      The primary cause of adrenocortical hypertrophy is increased ACTH stimulation. This can result from either stress or direct adrenocortical toxicity. The latter is under recognised and although stress has little toxicological significance, adrenocortical toxicity producing insuffiency (hypoadrenalism) is of major concern. This review outlines mechanisms inducing adrenocortical hypertrophy and their toxicological significance, and provides a strategy for differentiating etiologies.

    2. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects (pages 627–643)

      Kamyar Ghabili, Paul S. Agutter, Mostafa Ghanei, Khalil Ansarin and Mohammadali M. Shoja

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1581

      This article is a review of the historical and recent literature concerning the acute and chronic effects of mustard gas exposure on the human lung, skin, eye, immune system, gastrointestinal tract, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. Some emphasis is placed on recent experiences with war veterans in Iran. There are lasting debilitating effects on victims, both military and civilian, and further study of the prevention and management of these effects is urged.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Book Reviews
    1. Effect of a human pharmaceutical carbamazepine on antioxidant responses in brain of a model teleost in vitro: an efficient approach to biomonitoring (pages 644–648)

      Zhi-Hua Li, Ping Li and Tomas Randak

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1534

      Compared with studies in vivo, fish brain homogenates showed more sensitive antioxidant responses under CBZ-stress, therefore, fish brain homogenates could be used as an efficient model system in aquatic risk assessment. But it need more detailed laboratory studies before these findings could be established as special biomarkers for monitoring residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment.

    2. Acrylonitrile induced apoptosis via oxidative stress in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell (pages 649–655)

      Piyajit Watcharasit, Sumitra Suntararuks, Daranee Visitnonthachai, Apinya Thiantanawat and Jutamaad Satayavivad

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1535

      Acrylonitrile (ACN) can cause oxidative stress, a condition which is well-recognized as an apoptotic initiator; however, information regarding ACN-induced apoptosis is limited. This present study investigated whether ACN induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The results showed that ACN caused apoptosis, and increased Bax. Pretreatment with antioxidant, NAC attenuated apoptosis and Bax induction by ACN. Thus, ACN induces apoptosis via a mechanism involved generation of oxidative stress mediated Bax induction.

    3. Thymocytes are activated by toluene inhalation through the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT5 and NF-AT (pages 656–660)

      Jiqin Liu, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Naoki Kunugita, Junko Noguchi, Tsutomu Sugiura, Ning Ding, Keiichi Arashidani, Hidekazu Fujimaki and Uki Yamashita

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1536

      To investigate the influence of low-level inhalation of toluene on the naive immune cells, mice were exposed to low-level toluene (50 ppm) for 3 weeks. Low-level exposure resulted in (1) increased proliferation of thymocytes, (2) IL-2 production induced in thymocytes and (3) activation of the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT5 and NF-AT in thymocytes. These results suggest that thymocytes are sensitive cells and T cell activators are candidates for biomarkers for low-level exposure to toluene on naïve immune cells.

    4. Endogenous antioxidants and Nasal human epithelium response to air pollutants: genotoxic and inmmunocytochemical evaluation (pages 661–665)

      T. I. Fortoul, M. Rojas-Lemus, M. C. Avila-Casado, V. Rodriguez-Lara, L. F. Montaño, A. Muñoz-Comonfort and L. S. Lopez-Zepeda

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1538

      Nasal epithelium is a source for identifying air pollution impact. In our report we evaluated a population chronically exposed to atmospheric pollutants and correlated the DNA damage and the presence of endogenous antioxidants. We observed an increase in DNA damage when endogenous antioxidants decreased. Our conclusion is to strengthen a healthy diet with exogenous antioxidants to decrease the health impact of atmospheric pollutants.

    5. Chrysoeriol isolated from Eurya cilliata leaves protects MC3T3-E1 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation (pages 666–673)

      Young Ho Kim, Young Soon Lee and Eun Mi Choi

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1539

      Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were incubated with chrysoeriol and/or H2O2, and markers of osteoblast function and oxidative damage were examined. Chrysoeriol treatment significantly reversed the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and increased collagen content, ALP activity, calcium deposition of osteoblasts in the presence of H2O2. These effects were blocked by ICI182780, suggesting that chrysoeriol's effect might be partly involved in estrogen action. Moreover, chrysoeriol decreased the production of RANKL, IL-6, PCO, and MDA of osteoblasts in the presence of H2O2.

    6. Levels of organic and inorganic mercury in human blood predicted from measurements of total mercury (pages 674–679)

      Stefan Halbach and Gerhard Welzl

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1540

      The toxicologically important distinction between organic and inorganic mercury in human blood hitherto required separate analyses of total and inorganic Hg. The proposed calculation scheme facilitates this distinction by measurement of total Hg only. It requires assumptions on the well-documented difference between the erythrocyte/plasma concentration ratios of organic and inorganic Hg. The procedure has the potential to enlarge the epidemiological and toxicological specificity in surveys of mercury exposure.

    7. Preliminary evaluation of acute toxicity of 188Re–BMEDA–liposome in rats (pages 680–687)

      Chi-Mou Liu, Chih-Hsien Chang, Ya-Jen Chang, Chin-Wei Hsu, Liang-Cheng Chen, Hsiao-Lin Chen, Chung-Li Ho, Chia-Yu Yu, Tsui-Jung Chang, Tung-Chuan Chiang and Te-Wei Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1541

      Rats receiving the highest activity (185 MBq) of 188Re-BMEDA-liposome showed a significant decrease in WBC count (down to 5–10% of SD 0, P < 0.05) 7 days post injection, but found to recover on SD 15. Some PLT counts in irradiated and control groups were outside the normal range. Throughout the examination period, there were no significant changes in other parameters of hematological analyses in the irradiation or control groups (Table 1). In addition, the levels of liver and kidney enzymes did not alter significantly by 188Re-BMEDA-liposome treatment throughout the observation period (Table 2). Furthermore, the frequencies of DCs were associated with dosage of 188Re-BMEDA-liposome (Table 3).

    8. Comparative study on the influence of subcutaneous administration of diphenyl and dicholesteroyl diselenides on sulphydryl proteins and antioxidant parameters in mice (pages 688–693)

      I. J. Kade and J. B. T. Rocha

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1542

      The present study sought to evaluate the antioxidant effect and interaction of diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) and dicholesteroyl diselenide (DCDS) on thiol-containing proteins in vivo. The results show that both diselenides significantly increased the levels of GSH and Vit C. DPDS and not DCDS caused a marked reduction in the activities of hepatic ALA-D; however, both diselenides inhibited the activities of all isoforms of LDH and not cerebral Na+/K+-ATPase. We conclude that the chemistry of organoselenium is dependent on delicate equations.

    9. Validation of the intact rat weanling uterotrophic assay with notes on the formulation and analysis of the positive control chemical in vehicle (pages 694–698)

      Rochelle W. Tyl, Melissa C. Marr, Sherri S. Brown, Emily A. Dolbow and Christina B. Myers

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1544

      The intact weanling version of the uterotrophic assay is preferred by OECD over the adult ovariectomized version. We therefore validated the intact weanling version in Sprague-Dawley rats, 6/group and 6 groups, gavage dosed daily with 17β -estradiol (EE2) at 0, 0.1–10 µg/kg/day for 3 days (PND 21-23), and terminated on PND 24. Uterine weights (wet and blotted) were significantly increased at 3.0 and 10.0 µg/kg/day (both p < 0.01), increased to 140% at 1.0 and to 113% at 0.3 µg/kg/day (both nonsignificant).

    10. Naturally contaminated shellfish samples: quantification of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts and cytotoxicity assessment (pages 699–707)

      Susana M. Rodrigues, Paulo Vale, Teresa Chaveca, António Laires, José Rueff and Nuno G. Oliveira

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1546

      This report describes the LC-MS quantification of DSP toxins in unhydrolysed and hydrolysed extracts of several naturally contaminated bivalve samples and the evaluation of their cytotoxicity profiles in V79 cells. The cytotoxicity of unhydrolysed extracts was clearly dependent on the concentration of free toxins alone. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of the esterified toxins present was revealed after their conversion into free toxins by alkaline hydrolysis. For the hydrolysed extracts the cytotoxicity was mainly related to the concentration of OA and DTX2.

    11. Evaluating the possible genotoxic, mutagenic and tumor cell proliferation-inhibition effects of a non-anticoagulant, but antithrombotic algal heterofucan (pages 708–715)

      Jailma Almeida-Lima, Leandro Silva Costa, Naisandra Bezerra Silva, Raniere Fagundes Melo-Silveira, Fábio Vasconcelos Silva, Maria Beatriz Mesquita Cansanção Felipe, Silvia Regina Batistuzzo Medeiros, Edda Lisboa Leite and Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

      Version of Record online: 26 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1547

      This work presents the evaluation of the potential cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of a heterofucan extracted from brown seaweed. Several tumor-cell lines proliferation was inhibited at 0.05–1 mg ml−1 of the heterofucan. We observed no mutagenic activity in Kado test. Comet assay showed that heterofucan had no genotoxic effect on CHO cells. In conclusion, this study indicates that this heterofucan was not found to be genotoxic or mutagenic compound, thus it could be used in new antithrombotic drug development.

  3. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Book Reviews