Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Journal of Applied Toxicology

November 2010

Volume 30, Issue 8

Pages 719–780

  1. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Book Reviews
    1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of some oximes and associated therapeutic consequences: a critical review (pages 719–729)

      Victor A. Voicu, Jiri Bajgar, Andrei Medvedovici, Flavian Stefan Radulescu and Dalia Simona Miron

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1561

      Although oximes are currently used to counteract intoxications with OP, through potentiating the antidotal effects of atropine, their penetration through the BBB for reactivation of phosphorylated brain AChE still represents a debatable aspect. The therapeutic effects following penetration of oximes, more specifically the antagonism of OP induced seizures and hypothermia, prevention of brain damage and respiratory center protection, are issues of a high interest. A critical review of literature data existing about the specified topics is provided.

    2. Nanotechnology and human health: risks and benefits (pages 730–744)

      Anna Giulia Cattaneo, Rosalba Gornati, Enrico Sabbioni, Maurizio Chiriva-Internati, Everardo Cobos, Marjorie R. Jenkins and Giovanni Bernardini

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1609

      This review discusses state-of-the-art clinical applications of nanotechnology with a glimpse on what is still on the laboratory bench. Different types of nanomaterials, used in nanomedicine, might have an intrinsic toxicity. Their toxicity cannot be predicted from that of the corresponding bulk material. Nevertheless, the newest classifications of nanomaterials seem to pose the basis for predictive in silico approaches to pharmacokinetics and toxicity, aimed to accelerate the experimental design.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Book Reviews
    1. DNA damage in brain cells and behavioral deficits in mice after treatment with high doses of amantadine (pages 745–753)

      Vanessa Kaefer, Juliane Garcia Semedo, Vivian Francília Silva Kahl, Rafael Gomes Von Borowsky, Janaína Gianesini, Tarso Benigno Ledur Kist, Patrícia Pereira and Jaqueline Nascimento Picada

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1550

      Amantadine (AMA) is a drug mainly used to treat influenza A virus infections and Parkinson's disease. Since the central nervous system is the primary site of AMA toxicity, this study evaluated possible neurobehavioral alterations induced by AMA (15, 30, or 60 mg/kg) in male CF-1 mice and AMA possible genotoxic activities. Higher AMA doses increased DNA damage in brain tissue, produced locomotor disturbances severe enough to preclude testing of learning and memory effects, and induced stereotypy, suggesting neurotoxicity.

    2. Inhibitory effect of MIL glycoprotein on expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in carbon tetrachloride-induced mice liver damage (pages 754–760)

      Phil-Sun Oh, Jin Lee and Kye-Taek Lim

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1557

      The present study was evaluated immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective effects of glycoprotein isolated from Morus indica Linne (MIL glycoprotein) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated mice. Our results revealed that MIL glycoprotein reduced the activities of ALT, LDH and TBARS in mice serum. We also found that MIL glycoprotein reduced the activity of COX-2 and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in mice liver. Also, MIL glycoprotein suppressed on stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 transcriptional activation in mice liver.

    3. Acute exposure of rabbits to diphenyl diselenide: a toxicological evaluation (pages 761–768)

      Marcos Raniel Straliotto, Gianni Mancini, Jade de Oliveira, Evelise Maria Nazari, Yara Maria Rauh Müller, Alcir Dafre, Susana Ortiz, Edson Luiz Silva, Marcelo Farina, Alexandra Latini, João Batista Teixeira Rocha and Andreza Fabro de Bem

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1560

      In this study, we evaluated the effects of acute intraperitoneally administration of (PhSe)2 (5–500 µmol.kg−1) on toxicological parameters in rabbits. Exposure to the highest dose caused 85% mortality, while, the treatment with 5 and 50 µmol.kg−1 of (PhSe)2 improved the redox system in different tissues. Hepatic and renal biochemical and histological parameters were not modified by (PhSe)2. These results indicated that acute toxicology to (PhSe)2 in rabbit is dependent with the dose, which should motivate further experiments on the therapeutic properties of this compound.

    4. Bisphenol-A can bind to human glucocorticoid receptor as an agonist: an in silico study (pages 769–774)

      G. K. Prasanth, L. M. Divya and C. Sadasivan

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1570

      Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a primary monomer in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It has been detected in many human fluids. The present docking studies were carried out to investigate whether BPA can bind to human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Results showed that the mode of interactions and binding energy of BPA were similar to that of two known agonists of GR. Hence, the studies reveal that BPA can bind to GR as an agonist.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Book Reviews
    1. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of toxic metabolites is not related to increased toxicity following high-dose valproic acid in rats (pages 775–778)

      Byung Hwa Jung, Bo Jun Kim, Min Sun Lee, Joo Hyun Lee, Ju-Hee Oh and Young-Joo Lee

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1608

      This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid (VPA) and its two toxic metabolites, 4-VPA and 2,4-VPA, after the oral (20, 100, and 500 mg/kg) administration of VPA in rats. The plasma exposure of toxic metabolites normalized by dose remained unchanged (for 2,4-VPA) or even decreased (for 4-VPA) following high-dose VPA administration. Our results suggest that toxicity induced by high doses of VPA cannot be explained by a nonlinear increase of toxic metabolites in rats.

  4. Book Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    5. Book Reviews
    1. Edited by Peter M. Chapman, William J. Adams, Marjorie L. Brooks, Charles G. Delos, Samuel N. Luoma, William A. Maher, Harry M. Ohlendorf, Theresa S. Presser and D. Patrick Shaw, Ecological assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment, CRC Press, New York, 2010, 339 pp., (hardback) ISBN 978-1-4398-2677-5 (page 780)

      Saura C. Sahu

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1568

      Selenium is a naturally occurring essential element. Its concentration in the environment is increasing in the modern industrial world. Selenium can be a double-edged sword; it is not only beneficial for health, but also it can have adverse health effects. This book provides an in-depth ecological assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment. This comprehensive presentation with up-to-date information is the outcome of current developments in selenium research area.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION