Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 3

April 2011

Volume 31, Issue 3

Pages 191–284

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    1. Cardiotoxicity testing using pluripotent stem cell-derived human cardiomyocytes and state-of-the-art bioanalytics: a review (pages 191–205)

      Carl-Fredrik Mandenius, Daniella Steel, Fozia Noor, Thomas Meyer, Elmar Heinzle, Julia Asp, Sarina Arain, Udo Kraushaar, Susanne Bremer, Reiner Class and Peter Sartipy

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1663

      Recent progress in cardiotoxicity testing based on the use of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes in combination with state-of-the-art bioanalytical sensor methods is reviewed. The focus is on hESC-derived cells and their refinement into competent testing cells, but the access and utility of other relevant cell types are also discussed. Developments in sensor techniques for measuring critical cardiotoxicity parameters are highlighted, together with aspects of data evaluation and validation. Conclusive recommendations for further research are given.

    2. Computational chemistry, systems biology and toxicology. Harnessing the chemistry of life: revolutionizing toxicology. A commentary (pages 206–209)

      Ian Kimber, Colin Humphris, Carl Westmoreland, Nathalie Alepee, Gianni Dal Negro and Irene Manou

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1666

      Short abstract

      A workshop convened in 2010 sought to develop novel paradigms for the prediction of adverse health effects that may result from chronic repeat dose exposure. Attention focused on the opportunities that might result from harnessing recent advances in computational chemistry in tandem with modern system biology. The aim was to identify new and innovative approaches to hazard and risk assessment that, in time, may obviate – or at least reduce – the requirement for animals for some aspects of toxicity testing.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    1. MicroRNA expression changes during zebrafish development induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (pages 210–222)

      Ling Zhang, Yuan-yuan Li, Huai-cai Zeng, Jie Wei, Yan-jian Wan, Jun Chen and Shun-qing Xu

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1583

      Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been found to cause developmental toxicity. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in many metabolic task, whether and how they involved in the process of PFOS-induced toxicity is largely unknown. In this manuscript, PFOS-induced changes in miRNAs and target genes expression in zebrafish embryos and the potential mechanism are studied. The results showed that PFOS exposure alters the expression of a suite of miRNAs and maybe induce developmental toxicity.

    2. Testicular development evaluation in rats exposed to 60 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic field (pages 223–230)

      Bruno Mendes Tenorio, George Chaves Jimenez, Rosana Nogueira Morais, Sandra Maria Torres, Romildo Albuquerque Nogueira and Valdemiro Amaro Silva Junior

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1584

      Society has been increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Aiming to clarify the extension of possible interactions between EMF and testicular development, this study evaluated the effects of exposure to 60 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic fields, between the 13th day of gestation and the 21st postnatal day, on the maturation of testicular components. Histomorphometric analysis showed that exposure to EMF can promote a delay in the testicular development.

    3. Inorganic arsenite inhibits IgE receptor-mediated degranulation of mast cells (pages 231–241)

      Lee M. Hutchinson, Benett M. Trinh, Rachel K. Palmer, Christopher A. Preziosi, Jonathan H. Pelletier, Hannah M. Nelson and Julie A. Gosse

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1585

      The widespread toxicant arsenic previously has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. Some endocrine disruptors have been shown to affect mast cell degranulation, which is important in parasite defense, asthma and allergy. We have found here that arsenic strongly inhibits antigen-stimulated degranulation at environmentally relevant (and non-cytotoxic) concentrations, in a manner that is very dependent on concentrations of both arsenic and antigen. These data indicate that arsenic may inhibit the ability of humans to fight parasitic disease.

    4. Toxicity and recovery in the pregnant mouse after gestational exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin, cylindrospermopsin (pages 242–254)

      N. Chernoff, E. H. Rogers, R. D. Zehr, M. I. Gage, D. E. Malarkey, C. A. Bradfield, Y. Liu, J. E. Schmid, R. H. Jaskot, J. H. Richards, C. R. Wood and M. B. Rosen

      Article first published online: 8 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1586

      Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is an alkaloid toxin produced by fresh water cyanobacteria. It has been responsible for livestock and human poisoning. Pregnant mice were exposed to 50 µg/kg CYN during gestation days (GD) 8–12 or 13–17. Adverse effects were monitored up to 7 weeks post dosing by clinical examination, histopathology, biochemistry, and gene expression. Significant lethality, hepatic injury, hemorrhaging and changes in hepatic gene expression were recorded. Most indicators of toxicity returned to normal one week after dosing.

    5. Protective effect of C60-methionine derivate on lead-exposed human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells (pages 255–261)

      Tian Chen, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jin-Long Zhang, Bin Xu, Yi Lin, Chun-Xiang Wang, Wen-Chao Guan, You-Jie Wang and Shun-Qing Xu

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1588

      Antioxidants have been shown to be effective to prevent the cellular damage after lead exposure. Fullerene has been used as effective antioxidants. In this manuscript, we have synthesized a novel C60-Methionine derivate (FMD), which was a fullerene molecule modified with methionine residues. Its protective effect on lead-exposured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells was investigated. The results showed that FMD has excellent antioxidative and protective effect on lead-exposured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    6. Analysis of aluminium content and iron homeostasis in nipple aspirate fluids from healthy women and breast cancer-affected patients (pages 262–269)

      Ferdinando Mannello, Gaetana A. Tonti, Virginia Medda, Patrizia Simone and Philippa D. Darbre

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1641

      Levels of aluminium and iron-binding proteins (ferritin, transferrin) were measured in nipple aspirate fluids (NAF) from women with (Cancer) and without (NoCancer) breast cancer. The mean levels of aluminium and ferritin were significantly higher in Cancer than in NoCancer NAF and a positive correlation was found between them in the Cancer NAF. Raised levels of aluminium and modulation of proteins that regulate iron homeostasis could therefore provide biomarkers of women at higher risk of developing breast cancer.

    7. Serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in Mexican women and breast cancer risk (pages 270–278)

      Rogelio Recio-Vega, Victor Velazco-Rodriguez, Guadalupe Ocampo-Gómez, Sandra Hernandez-Gonzalez, Pablo Ruiz-Flores and Francisco Lopez-Marquez

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1672

      This study was designed to evaluate the relation between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk in 140 Mexican women. Twenty PCB congeners were evaluated. When PCB were grouped by structure–activity relationships, the risk of breast cancer was positively associated with groups 2b (OR = 1.90, 95% CI, 1.25–2.88), 3 (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.08–3.04) and group 4 (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.20–2.07). This study showed an association between heavy and potentially estrogenic PCB congeners and breast cancer risk.

  3. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    4. Short Communications
    1. Fetal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces expression of the chemokine genes Cxcl4 and Cxcl7 in the perinatal mouse brain (pages 279–284)

      Tetsuo Mitsui, Naofumi Taniguchi, Nobuchika Kawasaki, Yoshihiro Kagami and Jun Arita

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1612

      To investigate the mechanism for the neurotoxicity of dioxins, pregnant mice were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the 12.5th gestational day (GD12.5), and gene expression of the fetal brain at GD18.5 was profiled by DNA microarray analysis. The analysis revealed that the expression of two chemokine genes, Cxcl4 and Cxcl7, was up-regulated by TCDD exposure. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the Cxcl4 mRNA expression localized in a part of the surface of cerebral cortex was increased by TCDD treatment.

      To investigate the mechanism for the neurotoxicity of dioxins, pregnant mice were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the 12.5th gestational day (GD12.5), and gene expression of the fetal brain at GD18.5 was profiled by DNA microarray analysis. The analysis revealed that the expression of two chemokine genes, Cxcl4 and Cxcl7, was up-regulated by TCDD exposure. In situ hybridization analysis showed that the Cxcl4 mRNA expression localized in a part of the surface of cerebral cortex was increased by TCDD treatment.

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