Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 6

August 2011

Volume 31, Issue 6

Pages 499–598

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor
    1. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle (pages 499–505)

      R. Anand, B. K. Binukumar and Kiran Dip Gill

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1692

      Aluminium phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, poisoning due to which is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. There has been proof in vitro that Phosphine inhibits Cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor
    1. Effects of melamine on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in rats (pages 506–514)

      Sung-Hwan Kim, In-Chul Lee, Jeong-Hyeon Lim, In-Sik Shin, Changjong Moon, Sung-Ho Kim, Seung-Chun Park, Hyoung-Chin Kim and Jong-Choon Kim

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1703

      This study investigated the potential effects of melamine on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development in rats following maternal exposure on gestational days 6–20. The results show that 15-day repeated oral dosing of melamine is embryo-/fetotoxic at a maternotoxic dose, but not teratogenic in rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of melamine for pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development is considered to be 400 mg kg−1 per day.

    2. Pretreatment for acute exposure to diisopropylfluorophosphate: in vivo efficacy of various acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (pages 515–523)

      Dietrich E. Lorke, Mohamed Y. Hasan, Syed M. Nurulain, Mohamed Shafiullah, Kamil Kuča and Georg A. Petroianu

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1589

      The reversible AChE-inhibitors pyridostigmine, metoclopramide, tiapride, ranitidine, physostigmine, tacrine, amiloride, methylene blue, 7-methoxytacrine and the oxime K-27 were tested as prophylactic protective agents against exposure to the irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor diisopropylfluorophosphate. Their efficacy in reducing organophosphorus compound-induced mortality was assessed by Cox survival analysis. Best in vivo protection was conferred by physostigmine and tacrine (agents able to cross the blood–brain barrier), followed by K-27, the most efficacious pretreatment agent among those not passing the blood–brain barrier. When CNS penetration is deemed to be undesirable, prophylactic use of K-27 could be an alternative to pyridostigmine.

    3. GC-MS-based metabolomics reveals mechanism of action for hydrazine induced hepatotoxicity in rats (pages 524–535)

      Kiyoko Bando, Takeshi Kunimatsu, Jun Sakai, Juki Kimura, Hitoshi Funabashi, Takaki Seki, Takeshi Bamba and Eiichiro Fukusaki

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1591

      To investigate applicability of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry- (GC-MS)-based metabolomics approach for toxicological evaluation, and to try to elucidate the mechanism of hydrazine toxicity, metabolic profiling of urine and plasma in rats treated with hydrazine was performed using GC-MS combined with chemometric techniques. Metabolic profiles derived from GC-MS distinctly revealed dose-dependent toxicity and recovery, and oxidative stress and GSH deficiency are considered to be the primary modes of action of hydrazine-induced toxicity on the basis of altered metabolites.

    4. Protective effects of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus STAPF) essential oil on DNA damage and carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice (pages 536–544)

      Lucas T. Bidinotto, Celso A. R. A. Costa, Daisy M. F. Salvadori, Mirtes Costa, Maria A. M. Rodrigues and Luís F. Barbisan

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1593

      This study investigated the protective effect of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) treatment on leukocyte DNA damage and against mammary, colon and urinary bladder carcinogenesis in female Balb/C mice. LGEO-treated mice showed significantly lower leukocyte DNA damage than its respective carcinogen-exposed group alone at week 3. A near significant effect of LGEO oral treatment in reducing mammary hyperplasia development was found. The findings indicate that LGEO provided protective action against DNA damage and a potential anticarcinogenic activity against mammary carcinogenesis.

    5. Protective effects of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one derivatives against H2O2-induced damage in SK-N-MC cells (pages 545–553)

      Samaneh Bayati, Razieh Yazdanparast, Soraya Sajadi Majd and Seikwan Oh

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1594

      We evaluated free radical scavenging capabilities of Chalcones derivatives against the free-radical damaging effects of H2O2 on SK-N-MC cells. Pretreatment of the cells with these derivatives followed by exposure to H2O2 indicated that most compounds were capable of restoring the viabilities of cells relative to the H2O2–treated cells. Most of the derivatives significantly reduced the extent of lipofuscin formation time-dependently. Moreover, structure-activity evaluation clearly revealed that the hydroxyl group of vanillin ring is required for their free-radical scavenging activities.

    6. Inhibitory effect of pisosterol on human glioblastoma cell lines with C-MYC amplification (pages 554–560)

      Edmundo L. R. Pereira, Patrícia D. L. Lima, André S. Khayat, Marcelo O. Bahia, Franciglauber S. Bezerra, Manoel Andrade-Neto, Raquel C. Montenegro, Cláudia Pessoa, Letícia V. Costa-Lotufo, Manoel O. Moraes, France K. N. Yoshioka, Giovanny R. Pinto and Rommel R. Burbano

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1596

      We conducted a study in U343 and AHOL1 glioblastoma cell lines, before and after treatment with the triterpene pisosterol. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis we showed that 72% of U343 and 65% of AHOL1 cells contained more than two alleles of C-MYC before treatment. However, at 1.8 µg ml−1 of pisosterol, only 33% of U343 cells and 15% of AHOL1 cells presented more than two fluorescent signals, suggesting that pisosterol blocks the cells with gene amplification.

    7. Studies on the toxic effects of microcystin-LR on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) under different temperatures (pages 561–567)

      Xuezhen Zhang, Wei Ji, Huan Zhang, Wei Zhang and Ping Xie

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1597

      Up to now, no in vivo study has been conducted to investigate effects of temperature on MC-induced toxicity in fish, a typical poikilotherm. The LD50 values evidently increased with a decline of the temperature, indicating stronger tolerance of the fish under lower temperature. Changes of the transcription of GST isoforms in the fish were observed, and their sensitivity of response in the transcription of GST mRNA was in the order of 12°C > 32°C > 22°C.

    8. Protective actions of des-aspartate-angiotensin I in mice model of CEES-induced lung intoxication (pages 568–578)

      Eugene Teck-Leong Ng, Meng-Kwoon Sim and Weng-Keong Loke

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1599

      Des-aspartate-angiotensin I (DAA-I attenuated the fatality of mice that were intranasally administered 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES). DAA-I attenuated the early processes of inflammation seen in the lung of CEES-inoculated mice. The protection was dose-dependent. An oral dose of 75 mg/kg/day administered 18 hours post exposure and for the following 13 days, offered maximum protection that increased survival by a third. The protection was blocked by losartan, a selective angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker, indicating that the AT1 receptor mediates the protection.

    9. NADPH oxidase participates in the oxidative damage caused by fluoride in rat spermatozoa. Protective role of α-tocopherol (pages 579–588)

      Jeannett A. Izquierdo-Vega, Manuel Sánchez-Gutiérrez and Luz María Del Razo

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1600

      In this study the protective effect of α-tocopherol in spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats, and NADPH oxidase relationship to fluoride were evaluated. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by an increase in NADPH oxidase activity. The increase in ROS generation was diminished by an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In contrast, α-tocopherol treatment prevented the oxidative damage observed in the spermatozoa from fluoride group. NADPH oxidase participates in the oxidative stress caused by fluoride.

    10. The prenylflavonoid phytoestrogens 8-prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol diferentially suppress steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells in ontogenesis (pages 589–594)

      Gaia Izzo, Olle Söder and Konstantin Svechnikov

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1602

      The prenylflavonoids 8-prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol were found to inhibit hCG-stimulated androgen production by Leydig cells at all stages of their development, a process that was associated with the reduced ability of the cells to produce cAMP. However, these same compounds up-regulated hCG-activated StAR expression in progenitor (PLC) and immature (ILC) but not adult types of Leydig cells (ALC). The data obtained suggest that 8-prenylnaringenin and isoxanthohumol affect cAMP-dependent cellular processes up-stream transport of cholesterol into mitochondria.

  3. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor