Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 31 Issue 8

November 2011

Volume 31, Issue 8

Pages 707–800

  1. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    1. A review of the logistic role of l-carnitine in the management of radiation toxicity and radiotherapy side effects (pages 707–713)

      Haseeb Ahmad Khan and Abdullah Saleh Alhomida

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1716

      Radiation therapy is the first line of treatment for different cancer types. However, the benefits of radiotherapy are hampered by many acute and chronic side effects. Experimental studies have shown protective effects of carnitine against the adverse effects of ionizing radiation whereas carnitine deficiency is known to enhance radiation-induced toxicity. This report summarizes the recent literature on the adverse effects of radiotherapy and the impact of radiation on carnitine homeostasis.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research Articles
    1. Antigenotoxicity of artepillin C in vivo evaluated by the micronucleus and comet assays (pages 714–719)

      Moacir de Azevedo Bentes Monteiro Neto, Ildercílio Mota de Souza Lima, Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Ademar Alves da Silva Filho and Denise Crispim Tavares

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1614

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of artepillin C and its ability to prevent the chemically induced chromosome breakage or loss and the primary DNA damage using the micronucleus and comet assays in male Swiss mice, respectively. The results showed that artepillin C itself was not genotoxic and significantly reduced the number of micronucleated reticulocytes and the extent of DNA damage induced by doxorubicin and methyl methanesulfonate.

    2. The extract of the jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata promotes neurotoxic effects (pages 720–729)

      Raquel Felipe Vasconcelos Carneiro, Nilberto Robson Falcão do Nascimento, Paula Priscila Correia Costa, Victor Martins Gomes, Alex Jardelino Felizardo de Souza, Simone Cristina Buzzo de Oliveira, Eduardo Britto dos Santos Diz Filho, Fernando José Zara, Manassés Claudino Fonteles, Daniela de Oliveira Toyama, Marcos Hikari Toyama and Cláudia Ferreira Santos

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1620

      Herewith we present the biochemical and pharmacological characterization of an extract of the tentacles of the jellyfish P. punctata (PHY-N). Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) compounds as well as secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were identified. The extract induced phasic contractions in the mouse vas deferens, sustained relaxation of the mouse corpora cavernosa and a sustained tonic contraction of the biventer-cervicis neuromuscular preparation. Administration of PHY-N provoked death of broilers by spastic paralysis. PHY-N induces nerve depolarization and nonspecifically increases neurotransmitter release.

    3. The expression of RKIP, RhoGDI, galectin, c-Myc and p53 in gastrointestinal system of Cr(VI)-exposed rats (pages 730–740)

      Der-An Tsao, Wei-Chang Tseng and Huoy-Rou Chang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1621

      Hexavalent chromium(CrVI) is considered to be a risk factor in the formation of human cancer. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), Rho-GDIα, galectin, c-Myc and p53 play important roles in cancer formation. The purpose of this study was to determine if Cr(VI) induces the formation of gastrointestinal cancer. We concluded that the anomalous expression of RKIP, Rho-GDIα galectin, c-Myc and p53 might be a dangerous index of cancer formation in the stomach and colon of rats with Cr(VI) exposure.

    4. Consideration of dosimetry in evaluation of ToxCast™ data (pages 741–751)

      Lesa L. Aylward and Sean M. Hays

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1626

      Data from the USEPA ToxCast™ program was assessed for (1) the physiological relevance of the responding in vitro concentrations and (2) the interpretability of the patterns of response for chemicals included in USEPA common mechanism group cumulative risk assessments. Responding concentrations for five case study chemicals were generally in the range of relevant in vivo serum or plasma concentrations. However, lack of comprehensive metabolic capability in the test systems limited the coherence of the in vitro and in vivo data for chemicals in four common mechanism groups.

    5. Toxicity studies of nonylphenol and octylphenol: hormonal, hematological and biochemical effects in Clarias gariepinus (pages 752–761)

      Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran, Chokkalingam Kavitha, Mathan Ramesh and Tamara Grummt

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1629

      The objective of this study was to assess and compare the general toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) individually on Clarias gariepinus exposed to 250, 500, 750 and 1000 μg L−1. Our results revealed that these two chemicals seemingly affected hormonal, hematological and biochemical profiles of fish leading to serious impairment in metabolism and physiology of fish in all the concentrations tested. Depending on the parameters examined OP had relatively increased effect than NP.

    6. Identification of potential biomarkers for predicting acute dermal irritation by proteomic analysis (pages 762–772)

      Qihao Zhang, Taoli Dai, Lei Zhang, Minjing Zhang, Xue Xiao, Hao Hu, Ping Zou, Xia Liu, Qi Xiang, Zhijian Su, Yadong Huang and Qing-Yu He

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1630

      To discover novel endpoints for predicting the irritant potential, proteomics approach was used to analyze the altered protein expression in human keratinocytes exposed to various irritants. The expression of HSP27 and SOD-1 were down-regulated, while the expression of CFL-1 was up-regulated. HSP27 displayed the most significant alteration both in mRNA and protein levels, accompanying with nuclear translocation. The irritation also induced an increased production of IL1-. These findings suggest that these proteins may be additional endpoints for skin hazard assessment.

    7. Diphenyl diselenide potentiates nephrotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride in mice (pages 773–782)

      Ricardo Brandão, Rafael N. Moresco, Luziane P. Bellé, Marlon R. Leite, Mayara L. de Freitas, Adalto Bianchini and Cristina W. Nogueira

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1631

      In this study, we verify the toxicity of HgCl2 + (PhSe)2 interaction. HgCl2 + (PhSe)2 exposure caused a decrease in renal GST and Na+, K+-ATPase activities and an increase in renal ascorbic acid and TBARS concentrations. (PhSe)2 potentiated the increase in plasma urea caused by HgCl2. HgCl2 + (PhSe)2 exposure caused a reduction in plasma protein levels and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit contents. In conclusion, (PhSe)2 potentiated damage caused by HgCl2 affecting mainly the renal tissue.

    8. Mutagenicity of industrial wastewaters collected from two different stations in northern India (pages 783–789)

      Shams Tabrez and Masood Ahmad

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1635

      Mutagenicity of wastewaters taken from two different cities were compared by means of Ames plate and fluctuation tests. TA100 and TA98 strains of S. typhimurium exhibited the highest sensitivity against the Saharanpur sample in terms of the slope. However, the most sensitive strain against the test samples from Aligarh was TA98. Interestingly, TA100 and TA98 strains displayed highest susceptibility towards the samples from Saharanpur in the fluctuation test also. However, TA102 and TA100 responded maximally to AWW in this bioassay.

    9. Toxicological effect of emodin in mouse testicular gene expression profile (pages 790–800)

      Keiyu Oshida, Mikito Hirakata, Akihisa Maeda, Tomoya Miyoshi and Yohei Miyamoto

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1637

      Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a herbal medicine extracted from the rhizomes of Rheum palmatum, and is known as an inhibitor of casein kinase II (CK2). The CK2α′ knockout mice are known to be male-infertile; however, there have been no reports on the toxicity of emodin in male reproductive organs/tissues. To evaluate the toxicological effects of emodin on differential gene expression profiles of the testis as compared with acrylamide, mice were orally administered emodin and acrylamide for 5 days at a dose.