Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Journal of Applied Toxicology

November 2012

Volume 32, Issue 11

Pages 867–943

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Silver nanoparticles: a brief review of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of chemically and biogenically synthesized nanoparticles (pages 867–879)

      Renata de Lima, Amedea B. Seabra and Nelson Durán

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2780

      There is increasing concerning related to the biological impacts of silver nanoparticles. In this regard, there is increasing interest in the analysis of potential nanoparticle genotoxicity, including the effects of different nanoparticle sizes and methods of synthesis. This mini-review aims to present and to discuss recent publications related to genotoxicity and the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in order to better understand the possible applications of these nanomaterials in a safe manner.

    2. Chemoinformatics and chemical genomics: potential utility of in silico methods (pages 880–889)

      Luis G. Valerio Jr and Supratim Choudhuri

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2804

      Two of the applied biological disciplines that are poised to benefit from progress in computational life sciences and informatics are pharmacology and toxicology. This review will describe in silico chemoinformatics methods such as (quantitative) structure–activity relationship modeling and will overview how chemoinformatic technologies are considered in applied regulatory research. Given the post-genomics era and large-scale repositories of omics data that are available, this review will also address potential applications of in silico techniques in chemical genomics.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Acute toxic effects and gender-related biokinetics of silver nanoparticles following an intravenous injection in mice (pages 890–899)

      Yuying Xue, Shanshan Zhang, Yanmei Huang, Ting Zhang, Xiaorun Liu, Yuanyuan Hu, Zhiyong Zhang and Meng Tang

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2742

      The acute toxic effects and biokinetics of intravenously administered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated. AgNPs exerted no obvious acute toxicity when given intravenously in mice at dose levels of 7.5–120 mg kg−1. AgNPs could be distributed extensively to various tissues in the body, and the spleen and liver were the main target organs. Gender-related differences for the biokinetics and distribution were noted, and the elimination half-lives were 15.6 and 29.9 h for male and female mice, respectively.

    2. Short- and long-term toxicities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo and in vitro (pages 900–912)

      Shaoxian Tang, Yuechao Tang, Lingling Zhong, Kumuruz Murat, Gvlqikra Asan, Jerry Yu, Rongrong Jian, Changchun Wang and Ping Zhou

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2748

      We used nude multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) trimmed to a short length (50–200 nm; s-MWCNTs) and synthesized functionalized MWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) (s-MWCNTs-PEG). We found no toxicity for either type of nanotube on the viability of human SKBR-3 breast carcinoma cells. There were no differences in vivo on inflammatory responses, coagulation system, haemograms or vital organ functions between test and control groups and we found no toxicity of these nanotubes on male mouse sperm production or mutagenesis in the long term.

    3. In vitro biodistribution of silver nanoparticles in isolated perfused porcine skin flaps (pages 913–919)

      Teresa L. Leavens, Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere, Alfred O. Inman, James D. Brooks, Steven J. Oldenburg and Jim E. Riviere

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2750

      Nanomaterials increasingly are playing a role in society for uses ranging from biomedicine to microelectronics; however, pharmacokinetic studies, which will be necessary for human health risk assessments, are limited. Currently the most widely used nanoparticle in consumer products is silver (Ag). The objective of the present study was to quantify the local biodistribution of two types of Ag nanoparticles, Ag-citrate and Ag-silica, in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF).

    4. Time-dependent biodistribution and excretion of silver nanoparticles in male Wistar rats (pages 920–928)

      K. Dziendzikowska, J. Gromadzka-Ostrowska, A. Lankoff, M. Oczkowski, A. Krawczyńska, J. Chwastowska, M. Sadowska-Bratek, E. Chajduk, M. Wojewódzka, M. Dušinská and M. Kruszewski

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2758

      In the present study, the effect of 20 and 200 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on their intracellular uptake, tissue distribution and excretion at different time points was evaluated. AgNPs were found in various tissues and a concentration of 20 nm AgNPs was higher compared with 200 nm. Preferential distribution was observed in the liver after 24 h and in the lungs 7 days after the AgNPs exposure. Twenty-eight days after the injection, the highest Ag content was found in the kidneys and brain.

    5. Nanoparticulate silver increases uric acid and allantoin excretion in rats, as identified by metabolomics (pages 929–933)

      Niels Hadrup, Henrik R. Lam, Katrin Loeschner, Alicja Mortensen, Erik H. Larsen and Henrik Frandsen

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2779

      Metabolomic investigation of rat urine was employed to identify metabolites affected after oral administration of ionic or nanoparticulate silver. By high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, an increase in uric acid and its degradation product, allantoin, were identified. Verification was done by co-elution with authentic standards. The results suggest that silver affects purine metabolism.

    6. Genotoxicity evaluation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using the Ames test and Comet assay (pages 934–943)

      Robert S. Woodruff, Yan Li, Jian Yan, Michelle Bishop, M. Yvonne Jones, Fumiya Watanabe, Alexandru S. Biris, Penelope Rice, Tong Zhou and Tao Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2781

      The genotoxicity of 10 nm anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles was assessed using the Ames test and Comet assay. The nanoparticles were neither mutagenic in the Ames test nor genotoxic in the Comet assay. The results also suggest that the Ames test may not be suitable to measure the mutagenicity of the nanoparticles because the bacterial cells cannot take up the nanoparticles.