Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 3

March 2012

Volume 32, Issue 3

Pages 153–243

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. A review of pharmacological and toxicological potentials of marine cyanobacterial metabolites (pages 153–185)

      M. Nagarajan, V. Maruthanayagam and M. Sundararaman

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1717

      Novel toxic metabolites from marine cyanobacteria have been thoroughly explored. Biologically active and chemically diverse compounds that could be hepatotoxic, neurotoxic or cytotoxic, such as cyclic peptides, lipopeptides, fatty acid amides, alkaloids and saccharides, have been produced from marine cyanobacteria. Many reports have revealed that biosynthesis of active metabolites is predominant during cyanobacterial bloom formation.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on zebrafish (Danio rerio) retinal development (pages 186–193)

      Yan-Ping Wang, Qin Hong, Da-ni Qin, Chun-Zhao Kou, Chun-Mei Zhang, Mei Guo, Xi-Rong Guo, Xia Chi and Mei-Ling Tong

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1650

      PCB exposure decreased the survival rate of embryos in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The retinal layer development of zebrafish was delayed at higher PCB concentrations at 72 hpf. Irregularity of photoreceptor cells arrangement and thickening of photoreceptor and ganglionic layers were observed in PCB-treated larvae at concentrations of 0.25–1 mg l−1 at 96 hpf.

    2. Toxicokinetics of captan and folpet biomarkers in orally exposed volunteers (pages 194–201)

      Aurélie Berthet, Michèle Bouchard and Brigitta Danuser

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1653

      To determine the kinetics of ring metabolites of captan and folpet in human matrices following an oral exposure, volunteers ingested 1 mg kg−1 of these two widely used fungicides. Blood samples and complete urine voids were collected at fixed time periods over 72 and 96 h, respectively, following ingestion. The results show a relatively short half-life for the three studied metabolites as well as their sensitivity as biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet.

    3. Toxicokinetics of captan and folpet biomarkers in dermally exposed volunteers (pages 202–209)

      Aurélie Berthet, Michèle Bouchard and David Vernez

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1659

      To better assess biomonitoring data in workers exposed to captan and folpet, the kinetics of ring metabolites were determined in urine and plasma of dermally exposed volunteers. Each fungicide was applied on 80 cm2 of the forearm for 24 h. Blood samples and complete urine voids were collected respectively over 72 and 96 h following application. Overall, the studied metabolites appeared as key biomarkers of exposure to captan and folpet despite the low dermal absorption fraction.

    4. Evaluation of testicular degeneration induced by low-frequency electromagnetic fields (pages 210–218)

      Bruno Mendes Tenorio, George Chaves Jimenez, Rosana Nogueira de Morais, Christina Alves Peixoto, Romildo de Albuquerque Nogueira and Valdemiro Amaro da Silva Junior

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1680

      Generation, distribution and use of electric energy can generate low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). The present study investigates the effects of EMF (60 Hz and 1 mT) on spermatogenesis in rats. Plasma testosterone was not changed by EMF exposure; however, histopathological and histomorphometrical analyses of the testes showed testicular degeneration in a subset of animals exposed to EMF. The intensity of the degenerative process varied individually. Transmission electron microscopy evaluation showed mitochondria with loss of their organization and cristae.

    5. Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum (pages 219–232)

      L. Barr, G. Metaxas, C. A. J. Harbach, L. A. Savoy and P. D. Darbre

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1786

      The concentrations of five esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) were measured using HPLC-MS/MS at four serial locations across the human breast from axilla to sternum using human breast tissue collected from 40 mastectomies for primary breast cancer in England between 2005 and 2008. One or more paraben esters were quantifiable in 158/160 (99%) of the tissue samples and in 96/160 (60%) all five esters were measured. The overall median value for total paraben was 85.5 ng g−1 tissue (range 0–5134.5).

    6. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells (pages 233–243)

      André-Pascal Sappino, Raphaële Buser, Laurence Lesne, Stefania Gimelli, Frédérique Béna, Dominique Belin and Stefano J. Mandriota

      Version of Record online: 6 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1793

      Aluminum salts in antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in western societies. To date, no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. In human mammary epithelial cells, chronic exposure to aluminum concentrations up to 100'000 fold lower than those found in antiperspirants results in loss of contact inhibition and growth in soft agar. Our observations do not formally identify aluminum as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its wide use in underarm cosmetics.