Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 4

April 2012

Volume 32, Issue 4

Pages 245–304

  1. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Short Communications
    1. A review of poisonous plants that cause reproductive failure and malformations in the ruminants of Brazil (pages 245–254)

      Franklin Riet-Correa, Rosane M. T. Medeiros and Ana Lucia Schild

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1754

      Toxic plants affecting reproduction in ruminants in Brazil are reported. Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Ateleia glazioveana, Tetrapterys acutifolia, T. multiglandulosa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. gummiferum, Stryphnodendron coriaceum, S. obovatum, and S. fissuratum cause abortion. Abortions have been reported also in cattle intoxicated by nitrates and nitrites. Mimosa tenuiflora and M. ophthalmocentra cause malformations and embryonic mortality. Different reproductive alterations are also observed in the poisoning by swainsonine containing plants. Trifolium subterraneum causes estrogenism in cattle.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Short Communications
    1. Local and systemic toxicity of nanoscale debris particles in total hip arthroplasty (pages 255–269)

      Ioannis Polyzois, Dimitrios Nikolopoulos, Ioannis Michos, Efstratios Patsouris and Stamatios Theocharis

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2729

      Total hip arthroplasty is being performed in an increasing number of younger patients; therefore orthopaedic surgeons seek implants with a longer life span. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term biological effects of wear debris (metal wear nanoparticles being released from implant bearing surfaces). Metal nanoparticles circulate both locally and systemically, penetrate cell plasma membranes, bind to cellular proteins and enzymes, and modulate cytokine expression. Their physiological effects, potential toxicity, hypersensitivity and carcinogenicity remain a cause for concern.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Short Communications
    1. The effects of metallothionein 2A polymorphism on placental cadmium accumulation: is metallothionein a modifiying factor in transfer of micronutrients to the fetus? (pages 270–275)

      Deniz Tekin, Zeliha Kayaaltı, Vugar Aliyev and Tülin Söylemezoğlu

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1661

      Metallothionein affects the metabolism, transport and storage of micronutrients such as zinc, copper and iron, and the detoxification of heavy metals, especially cadmium. Cd is a common, highly toxic environmental pollutant that accumulates in human placenta, elevated concentrations of which are associated with impaired zinc transfer to the fetus. This prospective study investigated the effects of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) −5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on the accumulation of Cd in human placenta and micronutrient transfer to the fetus in 95 pregnant women and their newborns.

    2. In vitro toxicity of aflatoxin B1 and its photodegradation products in HepG2 cells (pages 276–281)

      Ruijie Liu, Qingzhe Jin, Jianhua Huang, Yuanfa Liu, Xingguo Wang, Xinglong Zhou, Wenyue Mao and Shanshan Wang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1669

      Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and p53 expression were assessed after exposure to different concentrations of AFB1 (0–100 μm) and its two types of degradation products, namely the mixtures of photodegradation products in water (Pw) and the mixtures of photodegradation products in peanut oil (Po) for different time periods (0, 24, and 48 h). The results of the in vitro cytotoxicity assay indicate that Pw is less toxic than AFB1, and Po has almost no toxicity, which can be explained by the differences in the chemical nature of the various kinds of the test compounds.

    3. Regulation of cigarette smoke-mediated mucin expression by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling pathways (pages 282–292)

      Hongmei Yu, Qi Li, Victor P. Kolosov, Juliy M. Perelman and Xiangdong Zhou

      Version of Record online: 4 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1679

      Cigarette smoke increases HIF-1α production, HIF-1 activity and MUC5AC expression in 16HBE cells, effects that are prevented HIF-1α siRNA. Cigarette smoke activates ERK1/2 and PI3K signal pathways by EGFR. The pharmacological inhibitors of EGFR, PI3K (LY294002) and ERK1/2 (PD98059) prevented cigarette smoke-mediated Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation responses, HIF-1α production, HIF-1 activity and MUC5AC expression. These results suggest that cigarette smoke activates EGFR-mediated signaling pathways, leading to HIF-1α production and HIF-1 activation, resulting in mucin expression in 16HBE cells.

    4. Ultrastructural effects of cisplatin on the inner ear and lateral line system of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae (pages 293–299)

      Luisa Giari, Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli, Laura Astolfi and Alessandro Martini

      Version of Record online: 18 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1691

      Zebrafish hair cells (HCs) show significant structure, functional and molecular similarities to the mammalian inner ear HCs. We examined the effects of cisplatin, an anti-cancer drug, on HCs of the inner ear and on HCs and support cells (SCs) of neuromasts in Zebrafish larvae. The predominant pattern of injury was widespread degeneration of mitochondria, which appeared swollen and less electron-dense. Severity of damage seemed to be concentration-dependent, and the inner ear suffered more damage than the lateral line system.

  4. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Reviews
    3. Review Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Short Communications
    1. Acute administration of toluene affects memory retention in novel object recognition test and memory function-related gene expression in mice (pages 300–304)

      Tin-Tin Win-Shwe and Hidekazu Fujimaki

      Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1693

      The hippocampi were collected 24 h after olive oil injection from control mice and toluene injection from toluene-treated mice. The expression of NMDA receptor subunit mRNAs in the hippocampus was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR method. Data represent the mean ± S.E of relative mRNA expressions normalized by 18S (internal control) (*P < 0.05).

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