Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 5

May 2012

Volume 32, Issue 5

Pages 305–375

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    1. Parabens detection in different zones of the human breast: consideration of source and implications of findings (pages 305–309)

      Philip W. Harvey and David J. Everett

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2743

      This article discusses the recent study by Barr et al., (J. Appl. Toxicol. 32 doi: 10.1002/jat.1786) that reported the detection of paraben esters in the human breast. The detection of intact esters is considered consistent with a dermal/direct exposure route, as is the finding of highest concentrations of propyl paraben in the axilla. The toxicological significance is discussed particularly whether the concentrations seen (ug g-1 in some samples) could compensate potency factors to provide oestrogenic stimulus in the breast.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    1. Role of glial cells in manganese neurotoxicity (pages 310–317)

      Nikolay M. Filipov and Celia A. Dodd

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1762

      The objectives of this focused review are to (i) provide a systematic overview of recent advances pertaining to the role of glia, namely microglia and astrocytes, in the neuropathology associated with excessive exposure to manganese (Mn), (ii) highlight possible mechanisms and factors involved in Mn-modulated, glia-derived neuroinflammation, and (iii) discuss the implications of excessive neuroinflammation on neuronal injury within the context of Mn overexposure.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    1. Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced? (pages 318–332)

      Nalinda Silva, Roshini Peiris-John, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Hemantha Senanayake and Nalini Sathiakumar

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1771

      Cadmium is a metalloestrogens implicated in the aetiology of oestrogen-dependent diseases. In this review, scientific evidence for the oestrogenic effects of cadmium is critically evaluated to determine if there is sufficient evidence to support cadmium as an aetiological factor of oestrogen-dependent disease in humans. Although the in vitro and in vivo evidence of the oestrogenic properties of cadmium was persuasive, evidence from population-based human studies remain conflicting.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    1. In vitro antioxidant and antigenotoxic potentials of 3,5-O-di-galloylquinic acid extracted from Myrtus communis leaves and modulation of cell gene expression by H2O2 (pages 333–341)

      Skandrani Ines, Bouhlel Ines, Bhouri Wissem, Ben Sghaier Mohamed, Hayder Nawel, Marie-Genviève Dijoux-Franca, Ghedira Kamel and Chekir-Ghedira Leïla

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1655

      Antioxidant activity of 3,5-O-di-galloylquinic acid (DGQA) purified from leaves of Myrtus communis was determined by the ability of the compound to inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 in K562 cell line. The pure molecule displayed an important malondialdehyde formation inhibition percentage (82.2%). Moreover, this compound exhibited an inhibitory effect against H2O2 induced genotoxicity, using the comet assay. A protective effect of the same molecule was also revealed when assessing the gene expression of the chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562), stressed with H2O2.

    2. The effects of cadmium on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in HUVECs (pages 342–349)

      Jisun Kim, Wonbong Lim, Youngjong Ko, HyukIl Kwon, Sangwoo Kim, Oksu Kim, Gyeongju Park, Hongran Choi and Okjoon Kim

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1677

      This study examined the VEGF-dependent mechanisms of angiogenesis and apoptosis in cadmium-treated endothelial cells (HUVECs). As a result, the low concentration of cadmium increased the tube formation in HUVECs. In addition, cadmium at concentrations of 5 μ M and 10 μ M increased VEGF secretion and VEGFR2. However, high concentrations of cadmium caused cell damage, disrupted tube formation and inhibited VEGF expression and the activities of VEGFR2. Therefore, the dual effects of cadmium might alter angiogenesis and induce apoptosis through VEGF pathways in HUVECs.

    3. Tissue distribution and histopathological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles after intravenous or subcutaneous injection in mice (pages 350–357)

      T. H. Umbreit, S. Francke-Carroll, J. L. Weaver, T. J. Miller, P. L. Goering, N. Sadrieh and M. E. Stratmeyer

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1700

      Tissue distribution and histology of injected titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (approximately 120 nm diameter) were assessed in mice up to 26 weeks. Particle agglomerates were observed by light microscopy in the liver, lung and spleen, and in the draining inguinal lymph nodes following s.c. injection. Particles were still observed after 26 weeks. Although no evidence of histopathological damage was observed, the lack of clearance from organs suggests that long-term adverse effects merit examination.

    4. Effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on HFL-I activating ROS-mediated apoptosis via p53 pathway (pages 358–364)

      Zhengli Xu, Laisheng Chou and Jiao Sun

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1710

      In the present study, human lung fibroblasts (HFL-Is) were directly exposed to two different sizes of SiO2 nanoparticles. The effect of size and concentration on cell response was studied by analyzing the cell viability, the ratio of apoptosis and the pathway of cell injury. The results demonstrated that a size-associated and a dose-dependent toxicity of HFL-Is was induced by SiO2 nanoparticles.

    5. Raman spectroscopy as a detection and analysis tool for in vitro specific targeting of pancreatic cancer cells by EGF-conjugated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (pages 365–375)

      Alokita Karmakar, Cornel Iancu, Dana Monica Bartos, Meena W. Mahmood, Anindya Ghosh, Yang Xu, Enkeleda Dervishi, Samuel L. Collom, Mariya Khodakovskaya, Thikra Mustafa, Fumiya Watanabe, Alexandru R. Biris, Yongbin Zhang, Syed F. Ali, Dan Casciano, Samar Hassen, Zeid Nima and Alexandru S. Biris

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1742

      Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) covalently linked to EGF proteins can be specifically delivered to human pancreatic cancer cells and are internalized by the cells at a greater level than exposure of the cells to simple SWCNTs. Raman spectroscopy proved to be a powerful technique to monitor the interactions between nanotubes both conjugated and unconjugated with EGF and the cells.

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