Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 32 Issue 6

June 2012

Volume 32, Issue 6

Pages 377–464

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Toxicological studies on plant proteins: a review (pages 377–386)

      Wenbiao Wu and Rong Sun

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1780

      Some acutely toxic proteins could be lethal to human at a dosage of a milligram or microgram per kilogram body weight, e.g. ribosome-inactivating proteins. Other acutely toxic proteins could cause serious illness, e.g. lectins or enzyme inhibitors. The biological and molecular characteristics of some toxic proteins have been discussed. Dietary safety evaluation indicated that some new proteins, e.g. Water hyacinth leaf, sweet lupine and canola proteins, could be employed as dietary sources. Proper processing might be able to detoxify some toxic proteins.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Percutaneous absorption of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate and simulated human exposures (pages 387–394)

      Maria Trabaris, Jeffrey D. Laskin and Clifford P. Weisel

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1657

      Dermal exposure to disinfection-by-products (DBPs) occurs through bathing and swimming. In-vitro measurements of haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH) permeation coefficients (Kp) ranged between 0.099–0.17 cm h−1 and 0.0039cmh−1, respectively. Dose estimates suggested HANs and CH dermal doses were 40–75% and 2% of the ingestion doses, respectively. For swimmers, dermal doses were comparable or higher than ingestion doses for HANs and ˜20% for CH. Thus, dermal exposure to DBPs in water should be considered when evaluating their total exposure.

    2. An intravenous exposure mouse model for prediction of potential drug-sensitization using reporter antigens popliteal lymph node assay (pages 395–401)

      Mingbao Lin, Wei Sun, Yingchao Wang, Xiang Li, Yecheng Jin, Wan Gong, Xiaohui Fan and Yi Wang

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1696

      In this study, an potential intravenous exposure mice model was validated by using reporter antigens popliteal lymph node assay with selected variety of allergenic compounds, including ovalbumin, concanavalin A and diclofenac. The trinitrophenyl-specific antibody-forming cells were used to assess the systemic immune responses to a bystander antigen. As expected, all positive compounds induced significant popliteal lymph node reactions, and it seems likely that the intravenous exposure model may be useful for drug-induced systemic hypersensitivity assessments.

    3. Atractyloside induces low contractile reaction of arteriolar smooth muscle through mitochondrial damage (pages 402–408)

      Rui Song, Huining Bian, Xuliang Huang and Ke-seng Zhao

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1688

      To investigate the association of atractyloside-induced mitochondrial damage in arteriolar smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) with contractile reaction. Atractyloside led to depolarized and damaged ASMC mitochondria, which might be related to the concentration-dependent induction of mPTP opening. Relative ATP content in ASMCs was reduced with damaged mitochondria by atractyloside, and ASMCs were hyperpolarized. In addition, the contractile responsiveness of ASMCs was eventually weakened. These results suggest that atractyloside has a toxic effect on vasoreactivity, which is possibly related to mitochondrial damage.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Atractyloside induces low contractile reaction of arteriolar smooth muscle through mitochondrial damage

      Vol. 33, Issue 10, 1192, Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2013

    4. Using MRI for the assessment of paraoxon-induced brain damage and efficacy of antidotal treatment (pages 409–416)

      Yossi Rosman, Arik Eisenkraft, Amir Krivoy, Ophir Schein, Igor Makarovski, Shai Shrot, Erez Ramaty, Eugenia Bloch Shilderman, Joseph Kapon, Eran Gilat, Tamar Kadar, Stephan Maier, Dianne Daniels, Ran Shneor, Sharona Salomon, Gregori Tamar, David Last and Yael Mardor

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1715

      This work demonstrates the feasibility of using DWMRI for depiction of early cytotoxic response to Paraoxon and T2-weighted MRI for later changes, thus enabling assessment of early/late brain damage as well as treatment efficacy in rats. The ability to depict these changes early and noninvasively may be applied clinically in the acute phase of organophosphate poisoning.

    5. Nephrotoxicity of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene in the male Hanover Wistar rat; correlation of minimal histopathological changes with biomarkers of renal injury (pages 417–428)

      Aubrey Swain, John Turton, Cheryl Scudamore, David Maguire, Ines Pereira, Sofia Freitas, Rosemary Smyth, Michael Munday, Clare Stamp, Mitul Gandhi, Surjit Sondh, Holly Ashall, Ian Francis, Jennifer Woodfine, John Bowles and Malcolm York

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1727

      Hexachloro-1:3-butadiene (HCBD)-induced renal proximal tubule injury in male Hanover Wistar rats was characterized at 24 h following dosing with 5-90 mg kg−1 HCBD. Onset of kidney degeneration and changes in urinary biomarkers occurred at 10 mg kg−1 HCBD; xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress gene expression changed at 5 mg kg−1 HCBD. The most sensitive noninvasive biomarkers were urinary α-glutathione S-transferase and kidney injury molecule-1, with urinary albumin measurement recommended owing to ease of measurement and amplitude of biomarker signal.

    6. Effects of four types of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with different nanocrystal morphologies and sizes on apoptosis in rat osteoblasts (pages 429–435)

      Zhengli Xu, Changsheng Liu, Jie Wei and Jiao Sun

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1745

      We aimed to compare the effects of four types of nano-HAP with different nanocrystal morphologies and sizes on growth inhibition and apoptosis in primary cultured rat osteoblasts. And it was observed that all nano-HAP inhibited the growth of osteoblasts and induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. The needle-shaped and the short rod-like particles induced greater cellular injury than the spherical and the long rod-like particles respectively. The increased apoptosis rates were accompanied by increased p53 and cytochrome c expression.

    7. Oxidative stress induced by aluminum oxide nanomaterials after acute oral treatment in Wistar rats (pages 436–445)

      P. V. Prabhakar, Utkarsh A. Reddy, S. P. Singh, A. Balasubramanyam, M. F. Rahman, S. Indu Kumari, Sachin B. Agawane, U. S. N. Murty, Paramjit Grover and Mohammed Mahboob

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1775

      This study investigated the oxidative stress induced after acute oral treatment with 500, 1000 and 2000 mg kg−1 doses of Al2O3-30 and −40 nm and bulk Al2O3 in Wistar rats. Both the nanomaterials induced significant oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner in comparison to the bulk. There was no significant difference between the two nanomaterials. However, the effect decreased with increase with time after treatment. The histopathological examination showed lesions only in liver with Al2O3 nanomaterials at 2000 mg kg−1.

    8. Potential toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles in in vivo and in vitro experiments (pages 446–453)

      Brigitta Szalay, Erzsébet Tátrai, Gábor Nyírő, Tünde Vezér and Gyula Dura

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.1779

      Possible toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were examined in rats after a single intratracheal instillation (in vivo study). Additionally, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of IONPs were evaluated using various bacterial strains and the Vero cell line (in vitro studies). In the treated rats, a moderate pulmonary fibrosis developed in a month. In vitro assays indicated moderate cytotoxic effect, but no mutagenic effect of the IONPs.

    9. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (pages 454–464)

      Delia Cavallo, Carla Fanizza, Cinzia Lucia Ursini, Stefano Casciardi, Emilia Paba, Aureliano Ciervo, Anna Maria Fresegna, Raffaele Maiello, Anna Maria Marcelloni, Giuliana Buresti, Francesca Tombolini, Stefano Bellucci and Sergio Iavicoli

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2711

      Cytotoxic and genotoxic/oxidative effects induced by commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were evaluated on human lung epithelial (A549) cells exposed to 5, 10, 40 and 100 µg/ml for different exposure times. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis, MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays and genotoxicity by Fpg-modified comet assay. The results showed an induction of early cytotoxic effects such as lost of membrane integrity, surface morphological changes, MWCNT agglomerate internalization and MWCNT ability to induce early genotoxicity.