Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 34 Issue 5

May 2014

Volume 34, Issue 5

Pages 441–575

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Microcystins in potable surface waters: toxic effects and removal strategies (pages 441–457)

      Amber F. Roegner, Beatriz Brena, Gualberto González-Sapienza and Birgit Puschner

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2920

      Freshwater harmful cyanobacterial blooms increase with global climate change and eutrophication of surface waters. Microcystins, remarkably stable and difficult to remove from drinking water, have resulted in animal and human intoxications over the past 20 years and have served as sentinels for widespread risk presented by cyanotoxins. We evaluated primary studies, reviews and reports for treatment options for microcystins in surface waters, potable water sources and treatment plants. Because of the difficulty of removal of microcystins, prevention is ideal.

    2. Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on the freshwater environment (pages 458–479)

      Robert Annett, Hamid R. Habibi and Alice Hontela

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2997

      Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide, among the most widely used agricultural chemicals globally. It is used in agriculture, domestic weed control, as well as in modern silviculture. Creation of glyphosate tolerant crops increased the demand and use of the glyphosate-based herbicides, and also increased the risk of exposure to non-target species. Commercially available glyphosate-based herbicides are comprised of multiple constituents, including surfactants which have been identified in many studies as the chemicals responsible for toxicity to non-target species. This review is designed to provide an update on toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides in the freshwater aquatic environment.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Ketamine attenuates cytochrome p450 aromatase gene expression and estradiol-17β levels in zebrafish early life stages (pages 480–488)

      William J. Trickler, Xiaoqing Guo, Elvis Cuevas, Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paule and Jyotshna Kanungo

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2888

      Ketamine attenuates aromatase gene expression and estrogen levels in zebrafish embryos.

    2. Characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin (pages 489–497)

      Rebecca J. Dearman, Lorna Beresford, Emily S. Foster, Scott McClain and Ian Kimber

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2897

      Potential allergenicity is an important challenge in the safety assessment of novel foods. Resistance to pepsin digestion is commonly measured, although the association is not absolute. The ability of kiwifruit actinidin (an important new allergen) to stimulate antibody responses in BALB/c mice was compared with the reference allergen ovalbumin, and the non-allergen bovine haemoglobin. Actinidin, but not haemoglobin, displays marked IgE responses, suggesting that in tandem with pepsin stability, IgE measurement may be useful for protein allergen identification.

    3. Monomethylated trivalent arsenic species disrupt steroid receptor interactions with their DNA response elements at non-cytotoxic cellular concentrations (pages 498–505)

      Julie A. Gosse, Vivien F. Taylor, Brian P. Jackson, Joshua W. Hamilton and Jack E. Bodwell

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2898

      Steroid receptor (SR) driven gene expression in cells is inhibited by inorganic arsenite (iAs+3). Fluorescence polarization experiments show that neither iAs+3 nor dimethylated (DMA+3) arsenite affect glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptor (PR) interactions with DNA response elements (GREs). However, monomethylated arsenic strongly inhibits GR-GRE and PR-GRE binding. The concentration of monomethylated arsenite in iAs+3-treated hepatoma cells is sufficient to inhibit SR-GRE interactions. Thus, arsenic's endocrine disruption may be caused by methylated metabolites' disruption of SR binding to DNA response elements.

    4. Direct exposure at the air–liquid interface: evaluation of an in vitro approach for simulating inhalation of airborne substances (pages 506–515)

      Jessica Rach, Jessica Budde, Niklas Möhle and Michaela Aufderheide

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2899

      A novel technique for exposure of cell cultures at the air–liquid interface (ALI) to airborne materials is introduced. The efficiency of the experimental setup with the CULTEX® Radial Flow System (RFS) is demonstrated by dose-response investigations of cigarette smoke and airborne particles. The value of such in vitro approaches as an alternative to current animal experiments for inhalation toxicology is discussed.

    5. Evaluation of adverse human lung function effects in controlled ozone exposure studies (pages 516–524)

      Julie E. Goodman, Robyn L. Prueitt, Juhi Chandalia and Sonja N. Sax

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2905

      We examined the concentration of ozone at which lung function decrements are observed and should be considered adverse in recent controlled human exposure studies using the Adverse Effects/Causation Framework. Below 72 ppb, lung function effects are primary effects, but are isolated, independent, and not statistically significant (i.e., not casual). Up to 72 ppb, lung function effects are transient, reversible, and of low severity (i.e., not adverse). This supports the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb.

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      A chronic oral reference dose for hexavalent chromium-induced intestinal cancer (pages 525–536)

      Chad M. Thompson, Christopher R. Kirman, Deborah M. Proctor, Laurie C. Haws, Mina Suh, Sean M. Hays, J. Gregory Hixon and Mark A. Harris

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2907

      Hexavalent chromium causes intestinal damage and intestinal tumors in mice; the mode of action for these tumors involves villous cytotoxicity and compensatory crypt hyperplasia. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were used to estimate chromium concentrations in the small intestine, so that the incidence for hyperplasia (an antecedent to tumor formation), could be modeled using benchmark dose and constrained nonlinear regression analyses. An RfD of 0.006 mg/kg/day was derived that is protective of both noncancer and cancer effects in the small intestine.

    7. Molecular impact of juvenile hormone agonists on neonatal Daphnia magna (pages 537–544)

      Kenji Toyota, Yasuhiko Kato, Hitoshi Miyakawa, Ryohei Yatsu, Takeshi Mizutani, Yukiko Ogino, Shinichi Miyagawa, Hajime Watanabe, Hiroyo Nishide, Ikuo Uchiyama, Norihisa Tatarazako and Taisen Iguchi

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2922

      DNA microarray was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of neonatal Daphnia magna exposed to juvenile hormone (JH) agonists; methoprene, fenoxycarb and epofenonane. JH analogs induced chemical specific patterns of gene expression. Hemoglobin and JH epoxide hydrolase genes were clustered to be JH-responsive genes. Fenoxycarb has high activity as a JH agonist, methoprene shows high toxicity and epofenonane works through a different mechanism. D. magna DNA microarray is useful for classification of JH analogs and identification of JH-responsive genes.

    8. Verification of responses of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to anti-androgens, vinclozolin and flutamide, in short-term assays (pages 545–553)

      Ataru Nakamura, Hitomi Takanobu, Ikumi Tamura, Masumi Yamamuro, Taisen Iguchi and Norihisa Tatarazako

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2934

      The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on humans and wildlife are of great concern. In this study, we compared the responses of adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) with those of juvenile fish to two anti-androgens: vinclozolin and flutamide. We found that the number of papillary processes that form on the fin ray plates of juvenile Japanese medaka can be used for the detection of the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals, while the disappearance of these papillary processes in adult fish is not useful in the short-term assay.

    9. Protective role of edaravone against neomycin-induced ototoxicity in zebrafish (pages 554–561)

      June Choi, Jiwon Chang, Hyung Jin Jun, Gi Jung Im, Sung Won Chae, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon-Young Kwon, Hak Hyun Jung, Ah-Young Chung and Hae-Chul Park

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2964

      Aminoglycosides such as neomycin are one of the most commonly prescribed types of antibiotics worldwide. However, these drugs appear to generate free radicals within the inner ear, which can result in permanent hearing loss. We evaluated the effects of edaravone, a neuroprotective agent, on neomycin-induced ototoxicity in transgenic zebrafish. The 5-day post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 125 μM neomycin and various concentrations of edaravone for 1 h.

    10. Toxic effects of colloidal nanosilver in zebrafish embryos (pages 562–575)

      Maider Olasagasti, Antonietta M. Gatti, Federico Capitani, Alejandro Barranco, Miguel Angel Pardo, Kepa Escuredo and Sandra Rainieri

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.2975

      The objective of this work was to test the toxicity of commercial nanosilver and evaluate the effect of ion release and Ag NPs size on the zebrafish animal model, in order to assess the safety for the consumer who uses nanoproducts. The exposure for 48h of 3 days hatched embryos afforded a reliable estimation of Ag NPs effects. Toxicity was due to the combined effect of ions release and NPs size and was evaluated at molecular level. The size effect was evident at low concentrations and depended on the media used.

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