Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 4

April 2015

Volume 35, Issue 4

Pages 327–445

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Impacts of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on the intestine of monogastric animals: poultry and swine (pages 327–337)

      Khaled Ghareeb, Wageha A. Awad, Josef Böhm and Qendrim Zebeli

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3083

      Deoxynivalenol is cereal contaminant, targets the intestinal epithelium with major public health concerns. Emerging evidences suggest that DON produces its toxicity primarily via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling and alteration in the expression of genes of physiological and immunological functions. Furthermore, DON down-regulates the expression of multiple transporters in the enterocytes and modulates mucosal immune responses. This review highlights DON impacts on the intestine and identifies gaps of knowledge that need to be addressed by future research.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Synergistic cytotoxicity and DNA strand breaks in cells and plasmid DNA exposed to uranyl acetate and ultraviolet radiation (pages 338–349)

      Janice Wilson, Mary C. Zuniga, Filbert Yazzie and Diane M. Stearns

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3015

      The photoactivation of uranyl ion by UV radiation was investigated as a chemical mechanism of uranium genotoxicity. The ability of UVB- and UVA-activated uranyl ion to generate strand breaks was measured in plasmid DNA, and the cytotoxicity of UVB-activated uranyl ion was measured in repair-proficient and repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells, and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Results suggested that photoactivated uranyl ion is chemically genotoxic, and a case is made that skin is an overlooked target organ for uranium exposure.

    2. Inhibitory effect of apocynin on methylglyoxal-mediated glycation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells (pages 350–357)

      Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Young Seol Kim and Eun Mi. Choi

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3016

      The present study investigated the effects of apocynin on the mechanisms associated with methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment with apocynin prevented the MG-induced protein glycation and formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial superoxide in cells. In addition, apocynin increased glutathione level and restored the activity of glyoxalase I inhibited by MG. Apocynin treatment decreased the levels of TNF-a and IL-6 induced by MG. Additionally, the nitric oxide level reduced by MG was increased by apocynin.

    3. In utero and early childhood exposure to arsenic decreases lung function in children (pages 358–366)

      Rogelio Recio-Vega, Tania Gonzalez-Cortes, Edgar Olivas-Calderon, R. Clark Lantz, A. Jay Gandolfi and Cesar Gonzalez-De Alba

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3023

      The lung is a target organ for adverse health outcomes following exposure to arsenic. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between urinary levels of arsenic and its metabolites with lung function in children exposed in utero and in early childhood to high arsenic levels through drinking water. Exposure to arsenic through drinking water during in utero and early life was associated with a decrease in FVC and with a restrictive spirometric pattern in the children evaluated.

    4. Graphene supports in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of goat adult mesenchymal stem cells: potential for bone tissue engineering (pages 367–374)

      Hoda Elkhenany, Lisa Amelse, Andersen Lafont, Shawn Bourdo, Marc Caldwell, Nancy Neilsen, Enkeleda Dervishi, Oshin Derek, Alexandru S. Biris, David Anderson and Madhu Dhar

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3024

      Current treatments for bone loss injuries involve autologous and allogenic bone grafts, metal alloys, and ceramics. Although these therapies have proved to be useful, they suffer from inherent challenges, hence, an adequate bone replacement therapy has not yet been found. We hypothesize that graphene may be a useful nanoscaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and will promote proliferation and differentiation into bone progenitor cells. In this study we evaluate a combination of graphene and goat mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration.

    5. Toxicity of new emerging pollutant tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate on BALB/c mice (pages 375–382)

      Juan Li, Xu Zhang, Jieqing Bao, Yuchen Liu, Junfeng Li, Jia Li, Yong Liang, Jie Zhang and Aiqian Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3026

      Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC) exposure had no effects on basic growth or food intake of mice, whereas significantly increased alanine aminotransferase serum levels. TBC exposure induced p53 expression in mouse liver, and altered the ultrastructure in liver and lung. Results also indicated that mitochondria are one of the major target cytoplasmic organelles for TBC. These findings suggest that damage in mitochondria is one of the pathways that lead to toxic effects in the liver and lung of TBC-treated groups.

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      Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects (pages 383–397)

      Aristo Vojdani, Datis Kharrazian and Partha Sarathi Mukherjee

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3031

      Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to launch a defensive response against self-tissue, leading to autoimmunity. In this study we measured antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that a substantial percentage of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against chemical adducts, which may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. This protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population.

    7. Systemic drugs inducing non-immediate cutaneous adverse reactions and contact sensitizers evoke similar responses in THP-1 cells (pages 398–406)

      Margarida Gonçalo, João Martins, Ana Silva, Bruno Neves, Américo Figueiredo, Teresa Cruz and Celeste Lopes

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3033

      Contact sensitizers induce phenotypic and functional changes in dendritic cells (DC) that enhance their antigen-presenting capacity. Drugs that cause T-cell mediated cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CARD) showed similar effects on THP-1 cells: allopurinol, which causes severe CADR, and oxypurinol, induced p38 MAPkinase phosphorylation and upregulated genes for HMOX1 and IL8, the latter with an intensity similar to the strong sensitizer, DNFB. Betalactams and carbamazepine had a more irregular effect on signalling pathways (p38 MAPK) and genes studied (IL8, IL12B, CXCL10, CD40 and CD83).

    8. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the plancitoxin I from the venom of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) on A375.S2 cells (pages 407–417)

      Chi-Chiu Lee, Hernyi Justin Hsieh and Deng-Fwu Hwang

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3034

      This study reports a cytotoxic toxin derived from the venom of the crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci (CAV). The CAV was identified as plancitoxin I protein. The results indicated that after incubation with CAV, cells significantly decreased in A375.S2 cell viability. The assays indicated that CAV toxin promoted ROS production, lost mitochondrial membrane potential and induced inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation in A375.S2 cells. The results suggested that CAV toxin induced a cytotoxic effect in A375.S2 cells via the apoptotic procedure.

    9. Analysis of drugs of abuse in human plasma by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (pages 418–425)

      P. Fernández, M. Regenjo, A. M. Bermejo, A. M. Fernández, R. A. Lorenzo and A. M. Carro

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3035

      A method consisting of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (DLLME/HPLC-PDA) was used to determine morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine and methadone in human plasma. An experimental design based on a Uniform Network Doehlert allowed the optimization of the extraction conditions. The chromatographic method was validated assessing linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, selectivity, precision and accuracy. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to 22 plasma samples from drug users.

    10. Cylindrospermopsin induces oxidative stress and genotoxic effects in the fish CLC cell line (pages 426–433)

      Anna Sieroslawska and Anna Rymuszka

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3040

      The aim of the study was to elucidate the prooxidative and genotoxic impact of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). CYN decreased the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and changed superoxide dismutase activity. Genotoxic activity of CYN, manifested as oxidative DNA damage and elevated number of micronuclei, was also detected. The results indicate that CYN is able to exert a wide range of adverse effects in fish leucocytes.

    11. Immunophenotyping does not improve predictivity of the local lymph node assay in mice (pages 434–445)

      Volker Strauss, Susanne N. Kolle, Naveed Honarvar, Martina Dammann, Sibylle Groeters, Frank Faulhammer, Robert Landsiedel and Bennard van Ravenzwaay

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3042