Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 5

May 2015

Volume 35, Issue 5

Pages 447–550

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. Safety of Chinese herbal medicines during pregnancy (pages 447–458)

      Bo Liang, Lu Li, Ling Yin Tang, Qi Wu, Xiao Ke Wu and Chi Chiu Wang

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3108

      Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) has been used to prevent miscarriage and treat infertility, but their potential toxicity have not been well studied and documented. In this review, clinical trials and animal studies of CHMs for miscarriage and infertility were reviewed to evaluate the safety of CHMs during pregnancy.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Research Articles
    1. In vitro evaluation of the effects of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on IL-2 production in human T-cells (pages 459–465)

      Kristin Midgett, Margie M. Peden-Adams, Gary S. Gilkeson and Diane L. Kamen

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3037

      Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), have been shown to alter various immune functions suggesting they are immunotoxic. This study assessed the effects of PFOS and PFOA on interleukin (IL)-2 production in the human Jurkat T-cell line and PFOS in healthy human primary T cells. These data demonstrated that PFOA did not impact IL-2 production, but PFOS significantly suppressed IL-2 production in both cell types at dose levels within the high end of the human exposure range.

    2. Protective effects of ascorbic acid against the genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by 3,5-dimethylaminophenol in AA8 cells (pages 466–477)

      Ming-Wei Chao, Pınar Erkekoglu, Chia-Yi Tseng, Wenjie Ye, Laura J. Trudel, Paul L. Skipper, Steven R. Tannenbaum and Gerald N. Wogan

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3046

      Exposure to monocyclic aromatic alkylanilines and their metabolites were significantly and independently associated with ROS generation and bladder cancer incidence. Apropos to this knowledge and information, this study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid on cytotoxicity, oxidant/antioxidant parameters, cell cyle arrest, Aprt mutation frequency, and epigenetic changes caused by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) AA8 cells.

    3. Renal cells exposed to cadmium in vitro and in vivo: normalizing gene expression data (pages 478–484)

      A. R. Nair, K. Smeets, E. Keunen, W.-K. Lee, F. Thévenod, E. Van Kerkhove and A. Cuypers

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3047

      The choice of reference genes for gene quantification is an important pre-requisite for carrying out new studies. A good normalization leads to biological relevant data interpretation as the detected variation in gene expression originates from biological rather than technical differences. The present study therefore serves as a baseline for renal cadmium (Cd) toxicity studies both in vitro and in vivo and the selected pool of reference genes that proved to be stable can be included in new experimental setups.

    4. Carnosic acid induces autophagic cell death through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway in human hepatoma cells (pages 485–492)

      Qilong Gao, Huaimin Liu, Yamin Yao, Liang Geng, Xinfeng Zhang, Lifeng Jiang, Bian Shi and Feng Yang

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3049

      The therapeutic goal of cancer treatment is now geared towards triggering tumour-selective cell death with autophagic cell death being required for the chemotherapy of apoptosis-resistant cancer. In this study, Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), significantly induced autophagic cell death in HepG2 cells. Ca treatment caused the formation of autophagic vacuoles produced an increasing ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I in a time- and dose-dependent manner but had no effect on the levels of autophagy-related protein ATG6 and ATG13 expression.

    5. Reversible cholinesterase inhibitors as pre-treatment for exposure to organophosphates: assessment using azinphos-methyl (pages 493–499)

      Georg A. Petroianu, Syed M. Nurulain, Mohamed Y. Hasan, Kamil Kuča and Dietrich E. Lorke

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3052

      Searching for a broad-range pre-treatment compound for organophosphate intoxication, the mortality-reducing efficacy of five reversible cholinesterase-inhibitors (pyridostigmine, physostigmine, ranitidine, tacrine and experimental oxime K-27) was assessed, when injected before exposure to the organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibitor azinphos-methyl. Best in vivo protection from azinphos-methyl-induced mortality was achieved by K-27 and physostigmine, reducing the relative risk (RR) of death to about 1/5. Prophylactic administration of an oxime, such as K-27, before exposure to organophosphorus compounds may be a promising option.

    6. Chronic trimethyltin chloride exposure and the development of kidney stones in rats (pages 500–507)

      Xuefeng Ren, Xin Wu, Gang Sui, Zhihong Gong, Emmanuel Yawson, Banghua Wu, Guanchao Lai, Xiaolin Ruan, Hongbin Gao, Feng Zhou, Bing Su, James R. Olson and Xiaojiang Tang

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3054

      We previously reported that occupational trimethyltin (TMT) exposure is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. Here we performed a 180-day animal study and showed that chronic TMT exposure can significantly inhibit the activity of renal H+/K+-ATPase and subsequently lead to an increase in urinary pH. We observed a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of kidney/urinary tract stones and the pathological changes in the kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group.

    7. Oral cadmium exposure during rat pregnancy: assessment of transplacental micronutrient transport and steroidogenesis at term (pages 508–519)

      Anja Mikolić, Martina Piasek, Antonija Sulimanec Grgec, Veda M. Varnai, Sandra Stasenko and Saša Kralik Oguić

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3055

      Biomarkers of Cd exposure, maternal and foetal micronutrients, and steroid hormones were evaluated after oral exposure to 50 mg Cd l–1 from pregnancy day 1 to 20. Non-pregnant rats were exposed under the same conditions. The Cd load was higher in pregnant rats. Progesterone and testosterone in placenta and serum were unchanged. Liver zinc increased in all exposed rats. Zinc decreased in maternal kidney and placenta, iron decreased in the maternal organs and foetus; hence micronutrient handover to the foetus was disrupted.

    8. Skin absorption of six performance amines used in metalworking fluids (pages 520–528)

      Lauriane N. Roux, James D. Brooks, James L. Yeatts and Ronald E. Baynes

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3056

      Every year, 10 million workers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs) that may be toxic. There are four types of MWFs: neat oils and three water-based MWFs (soluble oil, semisynthetic and synthetic), which are diluted with water and whose composition varies according to the mineral oils ratio. MWFs also contain various additives. To determine the absorption of six amines used as corrosion inhibitors and biocides in MWFs, porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell experiments were conducted with hydrophilic ethanolamines (mono-, di- and triethanolamine, MEA, DEA and TEA respectively) and a mixture of lipophilic amines (dibutylethanolamine, dicyclohexylamine and diphenylamine).

    9. Exposure to MnCl2 · 4H2O during development induces activation of microglial and perivascular macrophage populations in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats (pages 529–535)

      Hajime Abe, Takumi Ohishi, Fumiyuki Nakane, Ayako Shiraki, Takeshi Tanaka, Toshinori Yoshida and Makoto Shibutani

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3059

      This study was performed to clarify whether Mn exposure during development causes proinflammatory responses in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of offspring, involving the Mn-induced disruption of neurogenesis. Pregnant rats were treated with dietary MnCl2 · 4H2O during gestation and lactation. Their offspring showed increased activated microglia and perivascular macrophages in the dentate hilus and increased proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampal tissue after 800 ppm MnCl2 · 4H2O, probably involving the disruption of neurogenesis after 800 ppm exposure.

    10. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: Evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants (pages 536–542)

      Charlotte A. Hall, Helen L. Lydon, Christopher H. Dalton, J. K. Chipman, John S. Graham and Robert P. Chilcott

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3019

      The treatment of battlefield injuries may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ex vivo haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). A number of commercial products which may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants were identified which warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy.

    11. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 2: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using undamaged skin (pages 543–550)

      Christopher H. Dalton, Charlotte A. Hall, Helen L. Lydon, J. K. Chipman, John S. Graham, John Jenner and Robert P. Chilcott

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3060

      There is a need to develop haemostatic products that can simultaneously arrest haemorrhage and decontaminate CW agents from within wounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a number of candidate haemostats for efficacy as skin decontaminants against three CW agents (soman, VX and sulphur mustard) using an in vitro diffusion cell containing undamaged pig skin. Two products were shown to be effective and will be subject to further assessment using damaged skin.