Journal of Applied Toxicology

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 6

June 2015

Volume 35, Issue 6

Pages 551–693

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Research Articles
    1. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health (pages 551–572)

      Sylwia Borowska and Malgorzata M. Brzóska

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3129

      Cosmetics should be completely safe to human health; however, their use is sometimes related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from the presence of chemical substances, including metals. This review article is focused on problems related to heavy metals and aluminium presence in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations, allowed limits of occurrence and danger for the health of users of these products. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Research Articles
    1. Organ-specific distribution of gold nanoparticles by their surface functionalization (pages 573–580)

      Jong Kwon Lee, Tae Sung Kim, Ji Young Bae, A. Young Jung, Sang Min Lee, Ji Hyun Seok, Hang Sik Roh, Chi Won Song, Mi Jin Choi, Jinyoung Jeong, Bong Hyun Chung, Yun-Geon Lee, Jayoung Jeong and Wan-Seob Cho

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3075

      To evaluate the role of surface charge on distribution of NPs, 15 nm-sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) having 3 different charges (AuNPPEG, AuNPCOOH, or AuNPNH2) were injected intravenously into mice and organ distribution were measured. The organ distribution showed the higher deposition rate depending on their functional groups: AuNPPEG for mesenteric lymph node, kidney, brain, and testis; AuNPCOOH for liver; AuNPNH2 for spleen, lung, and heart. This information is important for directing NPs or improving the kinetic properties of NPs.

    2. Cellular uptake and toxicity effects of silver nanoparticles in mammalian kidney cells (pages 581–592)

      Mirta Milić, Gerd Leitinger, Ivan Pavičić, Maja Zebić Avdičević, Slaven Dobrović, Walter Goessler and Ivana Vinković Vrček

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3081

      The rapid progress and early commercial acceptance of silver-based nanomaterials is owed to their biocidal activity. Besides embracing the antimicrobial potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), it is imperative to give special attention to the potential adverse health effects of nanoparticles owing to prolonged exposure. Here, we report a detailed study on the in vitro interactions of citrate-coated AgNPs with porcine kidney (Pk15) cells. As uncertainty remains whether biological/cellular responses to AgNPs are solely as a result of the release of silver ions or whether the AgNPs themselves have toxic effects, we investigated the effects of Ag+ on Pk15 cells for comparison.

    3. The toxicity and distribution of iron oxide–zinc oxide core-shell nanoparticles in C57BL/6 mice after repeated subcutaneous administration (pages 593–602)

      Jun-Won Yun, Jung-Hee Yoon, Byeong-Cheol Kang, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Seung Hyeok Seok, Seung-Kee Min, Ji Hyun Min, Jeong-Hwan Che and Young Keun Kim

      Article first published online: 8 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3102

      Therapeutic cancer vaccines promote immune responses by delivering tumour-specific antigens. Recently, we developed iron oxide (Fe3O4)–zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) as carriers for antigen delivery into dendritic cells (DCs), and the CSNPs were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice to examine the systemic toxicity, tissue distribution and excretion of the CSNPs. The doses injected were 0, 4, 20 and 200 mg kg–1 weekly for 4 weeks. No significant changes were observed after the CSNPs administration with respect to mortality, clinical observations, body weight, food intake, water consumption, urinalysis, haematology, serum biochemistry,and organ weights.

    4. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles induced oxidative stress linked to activation of TNF-α/caspase-8/p38-MAPK signaling in human leukemia cells (pages 603–613)

      Sourav Chattopadhyay, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Satyajit Tripathy, Balaram Das, Santanu Kar Mahapatra, Panchanan Pramanik and Somenath Roy

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3080

      The purpose of this study was to determine the intracellular signaling transduction pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by nanoparticles in cancer cells. Activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has some therapeutic benefits in arresting the growth of cancer cells. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (CoO NPs) are an interesting compound for oxidative cancer therapy. Our results showed that CoO NPs elicited a significant (P <0.05) amount of ROS in cancer cells

    5. Toxicity of cobalt–chromium nanoparticles released from a resurfacing hip implant and cobalt ions on primary human lymphocytes in vitro (pages 614–622)

      Olga M. Posada, R. J. Tate and M. H. Grant

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3100

      In implant-related adverse reactions T-lymphocytes play a prominent role in sustaining the chronic inflammatory response. Primary human lymphocytes were isolated and treated with cobalt–chromium (CoCr) wear debris and Co ions, individually, and in combination, for 24, 48 and 120 h. Prolonged exposure to metal debris induced lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that activation of resting lymphocytes may have occurred. Furthermore, cobalt toxicity may modulate interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, which may contribute to the impairment of immune regulation in vivo in patients with metal-to-metal (MoM) implants.

    6. Quantitative evaluation of the pulmonary microdistribution of TiO2 nanoparticles using X-ray fluorescence microscopy after intratracheal administration with a microsprayer in rats (pages 623–630)

      Guihua Zhang, Naohide Shinohara, Hirokazu Kano, Hideki Senoh, Masaaki Suzuki, Takeshi Sasaki, Shoji Fukushima and Masashi Gamo

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3109

      The unevenness of pulmonary nanoparticle (NP) distribution, which hinders the establishment of an absolute dose-response relationship, has been described as one of the limitations of intratracheal administration techniques for toxicological assessment of inhaled NPs. Quantification of the NP microdistribution would facilitate the establishment of a concentration-response relationship in localized regions of the lung; however, such quantitative methods have not been reported. Here, we established a quantitative method for evaluating pulmonary TiO2 NP microdistribution in rats using X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    7. Different cytotoxicity responses to antimicrobial nanosilver coatings when comparing extract-based and direct-contact assays (pages 631–639)

      Eric M. Sussman, Brendan J. Casey, Debargh Dutta and Benita J. Dair

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3104

      Nanosilver (nAg) coatings are used as antimicrobial coatings on medical devices, but in spite of their intended benefit, there is concern over their potential toxicity. This study compares the response of cells to nAg in two formats of the cytotoxicity assay, an important component of biocompatibility evaluation. The results demonstrate cytotoxic responses to nAg coatings in the direct-contact but not the extract assay (100% reduction, P < 0.001), suggesting that nAg coatings in direct contact with cells and tissues could cause a cytotoxic response.

    8. Comparative cytotoxicity of dolomite nanoparticles in human larynx HEp2 and liver HepG2 cells (pages 640–650)

      Maqusood Ahamed, Hisham A. Alhadlaq, Javed Ahmad, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Shams T. Khan, Javed Musarrat and Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3097

      Dolomite NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HEp2 and HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity induced by dolomite NPs was efficiently prevented by NAC (ROS scavenger), which suggests that oxidative stress is the primarily cause for cytotoxic response of dolomite NPs.

    9. The effect of Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles on cytotoxicity and glucose metabolism in lung epithelial cells (pages 651–664)

      Xiaofeng Lai, Yifang Wei, Hu Zhao, Suning Chen, Xin Bu, Fan Lu, Dingding Qu, Libo Yao, Jianyong Zheng and Jian Zhang

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3128

      Cytotoxicity and metabolic reprogramming caused by nanoparticles.

    10. Potential of biofluid components to modify silver nanoparticle toxicity (pages 665–680)

      Anna Murphy, Kate Sheehy, Alan Casey and Gordon Chambers

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3123

      Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) interaction with biofluids upon entry to the body is important for accurate toxicological investigation. A number of toxicological tests were performed and demonstrated modification of AgNP toxicity by the chosen biofluid components cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid. It is concluded that the influence on AgNP toxicity by biofluid components is dependent on the biofluid component itself and the location where it acts.

    11. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats (pages 681–693)

      Jun-Won Yun, Seung-Hyun Kim, Ji-Ran You, Woo Ho Kim, Ja-June Jang, Seung-Kee Min, Hee Chan Kim, Doo Hyun Chung, Jayoung Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Kang and Jeong-Hwan Che

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1002/jat.3125

      Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague–Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period

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