Transmission infrared spectroscopy of whole blood – complications for quantitative analysis from leucocyte adhesion during continuous monitoring

Authors

  • Thorsten Vahlsing,

    1. Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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  • Uwe Damm,

    1. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS e.V. an der Technischen Universität Dortmund, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Straße 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
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  • Venkata Radhakrishna Kondepati,

    1. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS e.V. an der Technischen Universität Dortmund, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Straße 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
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  • Steffen Leonhardt,

    1. Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, 52074 Aachen, Germany
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  • Mathias D. Brendel,

    1. Carl-Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technical University Dresden, 3. Medical Department and Policlinic, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany
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  • Bayden R. Wood,

    1. Centre for Biospectroscopy, School of Chemistry, Monash-University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
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  • H. Michael Heise

    Corresponding author
    1. Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS e.V. an der Technischen Universität Dortmund, Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Straße 11, 44139 Dortmund, Germany
    • Phone: +49 231 1392 215, Fax: +49 231 1392 120
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Abstract

Infrared spectroscopy has been applied to analyse glucose and cellular components in whole blood with the aim of developing an online clinical diagnostic and monitoring modality. Leucocyte adsorption onto the CaF2 windows was observed over a period of several hours under continuous blood flow using a transmission cell of 30 μm path length. This build-up of cellular material on the windows is responsible for diminishing the sample path length under the flow conditions chosen. The adsorption dynamics have been characterised and their impact on glucose monitoring is reported. For short-term monitoring (<2 hours) a standard error of prediction of 11 mg/dL with human citrated blood samples from three different subjects was achieved. Furthermore, the leucocyte build-up was also reported for porcine EDTA blood monitoring. Consequences and testing opportunities with regard to the first stages in the immune cell reaction to the exposure of body-foreign materials to anticoagulated whole blood are discussed. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

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