• antioxidants;
  • epidermis;
  • bovine udder skin;
  • free radicals;
  • antiageing;
  • chromophores


Based on compelling in vivo and in vitro studies on human skin, carotenoids are thought to be of great interest as powerful antioxidants acting to prevent free-radical-induced damages, including premature skin ageing and the development of skin diseases such as cancer. Among the available techniques that are suitable for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human skin, are resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and reflection spectroscopy (RS). For RS, a LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) was developed for noninvasive measurement of carotenoids in human skin. The optimization and subsequent calibration of the MSS was performed with the use of RRS. A strong correlation between the carotenoid concentration determined by the RS and for the RRS system was achieved for human skin in vivo (R = 0.88) and for bovine udder skin in vitro (R = 0.81). (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)