• photoacoustic imaging;
  • photorefractive crystal;
  • interferometer;
  • ultrasound detection


In this paper we report on remote three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging without the need for a coupling agent or other aids (e.g. detector foils) by utilizing a two-wave mixing interferometer (TWMI). In this technique the beams coming from sample and reference are brought to interfere in a Bi12SiO20 photorefractive crystal (PRC). Such a setup allows the measurement of ultrasonic displacements on rough sample surfaces. After data acquisition the initial pressure distribution is reconstructed by a Fourier domain synthetic aperture focusing technique (FSAFT). We present three-dimensional imaging of a hair ribbon phantom, on biological samples with embedded artificial blood vessels or pig bristles, and measurements on a human forearm in-vivo. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)