• multiphoton imaging;
  • chlorophyll fluorescence;
  • cryopreservation;
  • cryomicroscopy


Thermally-induced changes in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves were investigated with a novel cryo microscope by multiphoton, fluorescence lifetime and spectral imaging as well as micro spectroscopy. Samples were excited with fs pulses in the near-infrared range and cooled/heated in a cryogenic chamber. The results show morphological changes in the chloroplast distribution as well as a shift from chlorophyll to cell-wall fluorescence with decreasing temperature. At temperatures below –40 °C, also second harmonic generation was observed. The measurements illustrate the suitability of multiphoton imaging to investigate thermally-induced changes at temperatures used for cryopreservation as well as for basic investigations of thermal effects on plant tissue in general (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)