Intra-operative ex vivo photoacoustic nodal staging in a rat model using a clinical superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersion

Authors

  • Diederik J. Grootendorst,

    Corresponding author
    1. Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
    • Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Raluca M. Fratila,

    1. Neuro IMaging group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Martijn Visscher,

    1. Neuro IMaging group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Bennie Ten Haken,

    1. Neuro IMaging group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Richard J. A. van Wezel,

    1. Biomedical Signals and Systems group, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands and Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen
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  • Sven Rottenberg,

    1. Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital NKI-AVL, The Netherlands
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  • Wiendelt Steenbergen,

    1. Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Srirang Manohar,

    1. Biomedical Photonic Imaging Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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  • Theo J. M. Ruers

    1. Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital NKI-AVL, The Netherlands
    2. Nanobiophysics Group, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
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Abstract

The ability to accurately detect tumor metastases in lymph nodes is essential for intra-operative staging of various malignancies. Histopathological assessment of nodes has the drawback of a time delay before results are available to the surgeon and a likelihood of missing metastases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been shown to possess the potential to detect melanoma metastases in resected in toto lymph nodes based on intrinsic contrast. To extend application of the method to other malignancies, extrinsic contrast for lymphatic mapping is important. We investigate in a metastatic animal model whether clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles, applied for MRI, can help PA imaging for staging in an intra-operative ex vivo setting. Imaging results are compared with 14 Tesla MR images and histology. We observe that irregularities in SPIO distribution in PA images of the nodes and a decrease in contrast correlate with metastatic involvement as seen in MR images and histology. The results show that a PA based imaging technique may be valuable for nodal staging in the field of surgical oncology. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

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