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Keywords:

  • nonlinear imaging;
  • cyclic pyrimidine dimers;
  • carcinogenesis;
  • relative risk;
  • UV radiation;
  • biological hazard;
  • femto-second pulses

Abstract

High power femto-second (fs) laser pulses used for in-vivo nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging can form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in DNA, which may lead to carcinogenesis via subsequent mutations. Since UV radiation from routine sun exposure is the primary source of CPD lesions, we evaluated the risk of CPD-related squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in human skin due to NLO imaging relative to that from sun exposure. We developed a unique cancer risk model expanding previously published estimation of risk from exposure to continuous wave (CW) laser. This new model showed that the increase in CPD-related SCC in skin from NLO imaging is negligible above that due to regular sun exposure. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)