• multimodal nonlinear microscopy;
  • multicontrast microscopy;
  • nonlinear imaging;
  • SHG;
  • THG;
  • 2PF;
  • CARS;
  • SRS;
  • 3PF;
  • FWM


Multimodal nonlinear microscopy has matured during the past decades to one of the key imaging modalities in life science and biomedicine due to its unique capabilities of label-free visualization of tissue structure and chemical composition, high depth penetration, intrinsic 3D sectioning, diffraction limited resolution and low phototoxicity. This review briefly summarizes first recent advances in the field regarding the methodology, e.g., contrast mechanisms and signal characteristics used for contrast generation as well as novel image processing approaches. The second part deals with technologic developments emphasizing improvements in penetration depth, imaging speed, spatial resolution and nonlinear labeling strategies. The third part focuses on recent applications in life science fundamental research and biomedical diagnostics as well as future clinical applications. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)