Cytotoxicity of ingredients of various dental materials and related compounds in L2- and A549 cells

Authors

  • U. I. Walther,

    Corresponding author
    1. Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
    • Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
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  • S. C. Walther,

    1. Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
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  • B. Liebl,

    1. Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
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  • F. X. Reichl,

    1. Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
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  • K. Kehe,

    1. Walther-Straub-Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Nussbaumstrasse 26, 80336 München, Germany
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  • M. Nilius,

    1. Klinik für Mund- Kiefern- und Gesichtschirurgie der Universität Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 49, 79095 Freiburg i. Br., Germany
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  • R. Hickel

    1. Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung und Parodontologie der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Goethestrase 70, 80336 München, Germany
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Abstract

Various ingredients of dental materials and related compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in two alveolar epithelial cell lines (L2 and A549 cells). Release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from cells was measured after incubation with the test substances for time intervals up to 48 h and expressed as percentage of total LDH content of lysed cells. Furthermore, the glutathione content of cells was determined in the nonmalignant L2 cells. Additionally, cell viability was assessed by microscopic examination. The highest cytotoxicity was observed with mercury compounds (methylmercuric chloride and mercury dichloride) in the range of 5–20 μmol/l. The composite components 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) showed time- and concentration-dependent effects of cytotoxicity at high concentrations (about 1–5 mmol/l). A time dependence for GSH decrease was mainly found for the composite components up to 12 h of cellular exposure. L2 cells were more sensitive to both mercury and composite compounds than A549 cells. Gold compounds (sodiumaurothiomalate and gold particles < 1.5 μm) did not produce any sign of toxic reactions. A time-dependent increased toxicity in pulmonary cell lines was found for the composite components HEMA and TEGDMA, but not for mercury and gold compounds. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 643–649, 2002

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