Surface modification of poly(ether urethane urea) with modified dehydroepiandrosterone for improved in vivo biostability

Authors

  • Elizabeth M. Christenson,

    1. Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    2. Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
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  • Michael J. Wiggins,

    1. Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    2. Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
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  • James M. Anderson,

    1. Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    2. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
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  • Anne Hiltner

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    2. Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
    • Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106
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Abstract

In this study, a fatty acid urethane derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was synthesized and evaluated as a polyurethane additive to increase long-term biostability. The modification was hypothesized to reduce the water solubility of the DHEA and physically anchor the additive in the polyurethane during implantation. Polyurethane film weight loss in water as a function of time was studied to determine the polymer retention of the modified DHEA. The polyurethane film with unmodified DHEA had significant weight loss in the first day (10%) that was previously correlated to rapid leaching of the additive. The polyurethane film with modified DHEA had significantly less weight loss at all time points indicating improved polymer retention. The effect of the modified DHEA additive on the biostability of a poly(ether urethane urea) was examined after 5 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Optical micrographs and infrared analysis of the specimens indicated that the modified DHEA bloomed to the surface of the film forming a crystalline surface layer approximately 10–15 microns thick. After explantation, this surface layer was intact without measurable differences in surface chemistry as monitored by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. There was no evidence of degradation of the polyurethane underneath the modified DHEA surface layer as compared with the polyurethane control. We have concluded that the modified DHEA self-assembled into a protective surface coating that inhibited degradation of the polyurethane. The roughness of the modified DHEA surface layer prevented adherent cell analysis to determine if the additive retained the ability to down-regulate macrophage activity. Subsequent studies will investigate the ability of surface-modifying additives to modulate cellular respiratory bursts in addition to the formation of an impermeable barrier. This bimodal approach to improving biostability holds great promise in the field of polyurethane biomaterials. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 73A: 108–115, 2005

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