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Aligned poly(L-lactic-co-e-caprolactone) electrospun microfibers and knitted structure: A novel composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering

Authors

  • Cédryck Vaquette,

    Corresponding author
    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
    2. Tissue Engineering and Microfluidics Laboratory, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Building 75—Cnr of College and Cooper Roads, Brisbane 4072, QLD, Australia
    • Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • Cyril Kahn,

    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • Céline Frochot,

    1. Département de Chimie Physique des Réactions, DCPR, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 1 rue Granville, Nancy 54 000, France
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  • Cécile Nouvel,

    1. Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Macromoléculaire, LCPM, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 1, rue Granville, BP 20451, Nancy, F-54001, France
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  • Jean-Luc Six,

    1. Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Macromoléculaire, LCPM, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 1, rue Granville, BP 20451, Nancy, F-54001, France
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  • Natalia De Isla,

    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • Li-Hua Luo,

    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • Justin Cooper-White,

    1. Tissue Engineering and Microfluidics Laboratory, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Building 75—Cnr of College and Cooper Roads, Brisbane 4072, QLD, Australia
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  • Rachid Rahouadj,

    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • Xiong Wang

    1. Group of Cell and Tissue Engineering, LEMTA, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 2 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
    2. Laboratoire Physiopathologie et Pharmacologie et Ingénierie Articulaires, LPPA, UMR 7561, Nancy-Université, CNRS, 9 Avenue de la forêt de Haye, Vandoeuvre 54 500, France
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  • This article is dedicated to our colleague and friend Luc Marchal.

Abstract

We developed a novel technique involving knitting and electrospinning to fabricate a composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering. Knitted structures were coated with poly(L-lactic-co-e-caprolactone) (PLCL) and then placed onto a rotating cylinder and a PLCL solution was electrospun onto the structure. Highly aligned 2-μm-diameter microfibers covered the space between the stitches and adhered to the knitted scaffolds. The stress–strain tensile curves exhibited an initial toe region similar to the tensile behavior of ligaments. Composite scaffolds had an elastic modulus (150 ± 14 MPa) similar to the modulus of human ligaments. Biological evaluation showed that cells proliferated on the composite scaffolds and they spontaneously orientated along the direction of microfiber alignment. The microfiber architecture also induced a high level of extracellular matrix secretion, which was characterized by immunostaining. We found that cells produced collagen type I and type III, two main components found in ligaments. After 14 days of culture, collagen type III started to form a fibrous network. We fabricated a composite scaffold having the mechanical properties of the knitted structure and the morphological properties of the aligned microfibers. It is difficult to seed a highly macroporous structure with cells, however the technique we developed enabled an easy cell seeding due to presence of the microfiber layer. Therefore, these scaffolds presented attractive properties for a future use in bioreactors for ligament tissue engineering. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

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