Genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan biomimetic scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications

Authors

  • Le-Ping Yan,

    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    2. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    3. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
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  • Ying-Jun Wang,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    2. Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    • School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
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  • Li Ren,

    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    2. Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
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  • Gang Wu,

    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    2. Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
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  • Sofia G. Caridade,

    1. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    2. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
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  • Jia-Bing Fan,

    1. Department of Orthopedics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, People's Republic of China
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  • Ling-Yun Wang,

    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
    2. Key Laboratory of Specially Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
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  • Pei-Hong Ji,

    1. School of Material Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China
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  • Joaquim M. Oliveira,

    1. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    2. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
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  • João T. Oliveira,

    1. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    2. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
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  • João F. Mano,

    1. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    2. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
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  • Rui L. Reis

    Corresponding author
    1. 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
    2. IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, PT Associated Laboratory, Guimarães, Portugal
    • 3B's Research Group-Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Taipas, Guimarães 4806-909, Portugal
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Abstract

In this study, genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan biodegradable porous scaffolds were prepared for articular cartilage regeneration. The influence of chitosan amount and genipin concentration on the scaffolds physicochemical properties was evaluated. The morphologies of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cross-linking degree was investigated by ninhydrin assay. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were assessed under dynamic compression. To study the swelling ratio and the biostability of the collagen/chitosan scaffold, in vitro tests were also carried out by immersion of the scaffolds in PBS solution or digestion in collagenase, respectively. The results showed that the morphologies of the scaffolds underwent a fiber-like to a sheet-like structural transition by increasing chitosan amount. Genipin cross-linking remarkably changed the morphologies and pore sizes of the scaffolds when chitosan amount was less than 25%. Either by increasing the chitosan ratio or performing cross-linking treatment, the swelling ratio of the scaffolds can be tailored. The ninhydrin assay demonstrated that the addition of chitosan could obviously increase the cross-linking efficiency. The degradation studies indicated that genipin cross-linking can effectively enhance the biostability of the scaffolds. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated by culturing rabbit chondrocytes in vitro. This study demonstrated that a good viability of the chondrocytes seeded on the scaffold was achieved. The SEM analysis has revealed that the chondrocytes adhered well to the surface of the scaffolds and contacted each other. These results suggest that the genipin-cross-linked collagen/chitosan matrix may be a promising formulation for articular cartilage scaffolding. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: , 2010.

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