The most common long-term complication of joint arthroplasty is loosening, which is mediated by chronic inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages stimulated by implant-derived debris and eventually bacterial components adherent to such debris. In this study, antiinflammatory interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) was studied in macrophages in interface membranes in vivo using immunohistochemical staining and in titanium particle-stimulated macrophages in vitro using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results show that the interface membranes of septically and aseptically loosened prosthesis express more IRAK-M protein than control membranes from osteoarthritic patient and that IRAK-M mRNA-levels increase upon particle stimulation. These findings suggest that, the upregulation of IRAK-M in macrophages is involved in the local immunosuppression around implants, and may contribute to septic and aseptic implant loosening. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2012.