How to cite this article: White JC, Stoppel WL, Roberts SC, Bhatia SR. 2013. Addition of perfluorocarbons to alginate hydrogels significantly impacts molecular transport and fracture stress. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013:101A:438–446.
Addition of perfluorocarbons to alginate hydrogels significantly impacts molecular transport and fracture stress †
Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
Volume 101A, Issue 2, pages 438–446, February 2013
How to Cite
White, J. C., Stoppel, W. L., Roberts, S. C. and Bhatia, S. R. (2013), Addition of perfluorocarbons to alginate hydrogels significantly impacts molecular transport and fracture stress . J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 101A: 438–446. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.34344
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 3 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 14 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 4 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Received: 21 DEC 2011
- National Science Foundation (NSF). Grant Number: CMMI-0531171
- Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) on Polymers. Grant Number: DMR-0213695
- Institute for Cellular Engineering IGERT Program. Grant Number: DGE-0654128
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Number: T32 GM08515
- synthetic oxygen carrier;
- protein transport
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are used in biomaterial formulations to increase oxygen (O2) tension and create a homogeneous O2 environment in three-dimensional tissue constructs. It is unclear how PFCs affect mechanical and transport properties of the scaffold, which are critical for robustness, intracellular signaling, protein transport, and overall device efficacy. In this study, we investigate composite alginate hydrogels containing a perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) emulsion stabilized with Pluronic® F68 (F68). We demonstrate that PFC addition significantly affects biomaterial properties and performance. Solution and hydrogel mechanical properties and transport of representative hydrophilic (riboflavin), hydrophobic (methyl and ethyl paraben), and protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) solutes were compared in alginate/F68 composite hydrogels with or without PFOB. Our results indicate that mechanical properties of the alginate/F68/PFOB hydrogels are not significantly affected under small strains, but a significant decrease fracture stress is observed. The effective diffusivity Deff of hydrophobic small molecules decreases with PFOB emulsion addition, yet the Deff of hydrophilic small molecules remained unaffected. For BSA, the Deff increased and the loading capacity decreased with PFOB emulsion addition. Thus, a trade-off between the desired increased O2 supply provided by PFCs and the mechanical weakening and change in transport of cellular signals must be carefully considered in the design of biomaterials containing PFCs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.