• myocardial infarction;
  • transmyocardial revascularization;
  • needle-free injector;
  • chitosan;
  • growth factors


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether transmyocardial jet revascularization (TMJR) with chitosan scaffolds retains channel patency and enhances angiogenesis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a canine model. A total of 32 canines were randomly divided into four groups: myocardial infarction (MI), normal saline (NS), chitosan hydrogel (CH), and chitosan plus growth factor (CH + GF) groups. TMJR was performed surgically using a needle-free injector from the epicardium of canines in the NS, CH, and CH + GF groups; channels were filled with NS, CH, and CH + GF, respectively. After 6 weeks, the patency of the channels and angiogenesis around the channels were assessed by hematoxylin–eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, and Masson's trichrome staining. Results suggest that the channels in the CH and CH + GF groups may retain patency with luminal endothelization. Moreover, the vessel densities of the NS, CH, and CH + GF groups were significantly higher than that of the MI group, and that of the CH + GF group was the highest (p < 0.05). This study suggests that TMJR with chitosan scaffolds may help retain transmyocardial channel patency and enhance angiogenesis after AMI in canines. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.