• nylon;
  • graphene oxide;
  • osteoblasts;
  • fibronectin;
  • focal adhesion contacts;
  • actin cytoskeleton


Nylon 6,6 is used for biological applications including gastrointestinal segments, tracheal tubes and sutures, vascular graft, and for hard tissue reconstruction. While it is a relatively inexpensive polymer, it is not widely acceptable as a preferred biomaterial because of bioactivity. To this end, we have discovered the exciting evidence that introduction of a novel nanostructured carbon, graphene, in the void space between the nylon chains and processing at elevated pressure favorably stimulates cellular functions and provides high degree of cytocompatibility. The cell–substrate interactions on stand alone Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6,6-graphene oxide hybrid system were investigated in terms of cell attachment, viability, proliferation, and assessment of proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin. The enhanced biological functions in the nanostructured hybrid system are attributed to relatively superior hydrophilicity of the surface and to the presence of graphene. Furthermore, it is proposed that the negatively charged graphene interacts with the polar nature of cells and the culture medium, such that the interaction is promoted through polar forces. This is accomplished by investigating cell attachment, proliferation, and morphology, including cytomorphometry evaluation, and quantitative assessment of prominent proteins, actin, vinculin, and fibronectin that are sensitive to cell–substrate interactions. Osteoblasts were studied to establish the practical viability of the hybrid nanostructured biomaterial. The study strengthens the foundation for utilizing nano- or quantum-size effects of nanostructured biomaterials. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.