The purpose of this study was to generate tissue-engineered bone using human periosteal-derived osteoblasts (PO) and polydioxanone/pluronic F127 (PDO/pluronic F127) scaffold with preseeded human periosteal-derived CD146 positive endothelial-like cells (PE). PE were purified from the periosteal cell population by cell sorting. One of the important factors to consider in generating tissue-engineered bone using osteoprecursor and endothelial cells and a specific scaffold is whether the function of osteoprecursor and endothelial cells can be maintained in originally different culture medium conditions. After human PE were preseeded into PDO/pluronic F127 scaffold and cultured in endothelial cell basal medium-2 for 7 days, human PO were seeded into the PDO/pluronic F127 scaffold with PE, and then, this cell-scaffold construct was cultured in endothelial cell basal medium-2 with osteogenic induction factors, including ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, and β-glycerophosphate, for a further 7 days. Then, this 2-week cultured construct was grafted into the mandibular defect of miniature pig. Twelve weeks after implantation, the animal was sacrificed. Clinical examination revealed that newly formed bone was seen more clearly in the defect with human PO and PDO/pluronic F127 scaffold with preseeded human PE. The experimental results suggest that tissue-engineered bone formation using human PO and PDO/pluronic F127 scaffold with preseeded human PE can be used to restore skeletal integrity to various bony defects when used in clinics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.