GGT-GSB composite was prepared by mixing a biodegradable GGT composite containing genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate with Gu-Sui-Bu extract (GSB) (Drynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm.), a traditional Chinese medicine. Then, porous GGT and GGT-GSB scaffolds were fabricated using a salt-leaching method. The GGT and GGT-GSB scaffolds thus obtained had a macroporous structure and high porosity. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto GGT and GGT-GSB scaffolds. The biological response of rabbit calvarial bone to these scaffolds was considered to evaluate the potential of the scaffolds for use in bone tissue engineering. After 8 weeks of implantation, each scaffold induced new bone formation at a cranial bone defect, as was verified by X-ray microradiography. The BMSC-seeded GGT-GSB scaffolds induced more new bone formation than the BMSC-seeded GGT and acellular scaffolds. These observations suggest that an autologous BMSCs-seeded porous GGT-GSB scaffold can be adopted in bone engineering in vivo and has great potential for regenerating defective bone tissue. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.