Novel injectable biomimetic hydrogels with carbon nanofibers and self assembled rosette nanotubes for myocardial applications

Authors

  • Xiangling Meng,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
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  • David A. Stout,

    1. School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
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  • Linlin Sun,

    1. School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
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  • Rachel L. Beingessner,

    1. National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9, Canada
    2. National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9, Canada
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  • Hicham Fenniri,

    1. National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9, Canada
    2. National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9, Canada
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  • Thomas J. Webster

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
    2. Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
    • School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912
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  • How to cite this article: Meng X, Stout DA, Sun L, Beingessner RL, Fenniri H, Webster TJ. 2013. Novel injectable biomimetic hydrogels with carbon nanofibers and self assembled rosette nanotubes for myocardial applications. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013:101A:1095–1102.

Abstract

The objective of the present in vitro study was to investigate cardiomyocyte functions, specifically their adhesion and proliferation, on injectable scaffolds containing RNT (rosette nanotubes) and CNF (carbon nanofibers) in a pHEMA (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) hydrogel to determine their potential for myocardial tissue engineering applications. RNTs are novel biocompatible nanomaterials assembled from synthetic analogs of DNA bases guanine and cytosine that self-assemble within minutes when placed in aqueous solutions at body temperatures. These materials could potentially improve cardiomyocyte functions and solidification time of pHEMA and CNF composites. Because heart tissue is conductive, CNFs were added to pHEMA to increase the composite's conductivity. Our results showed that cardiomyocyte density increased after 4 h, 1 day, and 3 days with greater amounts of CNFs and greater amounts of RNTs in pHEMA (up to 10 mg mL−1 CNFs and 0.05 mg mL−1 RNTs). Factors that may have increased cardiomyocyte functions include greater wettability, conductivity, and an increase in surface nanoroughness with greater amounts of CNFs and RNTs. In effect, contact angles measured on the surface of the composites decreased while the conductivity and surface roughness increased as CNFs and RNTs content increased. Lastly, the ultimate tensile modulus decreased for composites with greater amounts of CNFs. In summary, the properties of these injectable composites make them promising candidates for myocardial tissue engineering applications and should be further studied. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

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