Controlling cell organization is important in tissue engineering. Guidance by aligned features on scaffolds or stimulation by physical signals can be used to induce cell alignment. We have previously demonstrated a preferred alignment of human MSCs (hMSCs) along the compression loading axis in 3D collagen construct. In this study, we aim to investigate the collagen concentration dependence of the compression-induced hMSC organization. Results demonstrated that the compression-induced alignment and elongation of hMSCs exhibited a biphasic dose-dependent relationship with collagen concentration, and associated well with both collagen ligand density and elastic modulus of the constructs. Moreover, collagen concentration and compression loading significantly affected the expression level of integrin beta 1 and antibody neutralization against this molecule aborted the compression-induced alignment and elongation responses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.