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High biocompatibility and improved osteogenic potential of novel Ca–P/titania composite scaffolds designed for regeneration of load-bearing segmental bone defects

Authors

  • Carla Cunha,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
    2. Laboratory of Biomechanics and Technology Innovation, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136, Italy
    • Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
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  • Simone Sprio,

    1. Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
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  • Silvia Panseri,

    1. Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
    2. Laboratory of Biomechanics and Technology Innovation, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136, Italy
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  • Massimiliano Dapporto,

    1. Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
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  • Maurilio Marcacci,

    1. Laboratory of Biomechanics and Technology Innovation, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via di Barbiano 1/10, Bologna 40136, Italy
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  • Anna Tampieri

    1. Laboratory of Bioceramics and Bio-hybrid Composites, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, National Research Council, Via Granarolo 64, Faenza 48018, Italy
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  • How to cite this article: Cunha C, Sprio S, Panseri S, Dapporto M, Marcacci M, Tampieri A. 2013. High biocompatibility and improved osteogenic potential of novel Ca-P/titania composite scaffolds designed for regeneration of load-bearing segmental bone defects. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013:101A:1612–1619.

Abstract

Regeneration of load-bearing bone segments is still an open challenge due to the lack of biomaterials mimicking natural bone with a suitable chemicophysical and mechanical performance. This study proposes ceramic bone scaffolds made of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and titania (TiO2), developed from hydroxyapatite (HA) and TiO2 starting nanopowders, which exhibit high and interconnected macroporosity (>70 vol %). The scaffold composition was designed to achieve a synergistic effect of bioactivity/resorbability and mechanical properties suitable for load-bearing regenerative applications. The analysis of the morphology, structure, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds resulted in compression strength nearly twice that of commercially available HA bone grafts with similar structure (Engipore®). Biological characterization was carried out for human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells proliferation, activity, attachment, and viability. β-TCP/TiO2 scaffolds show high proliferation rate, high viability, and high colonization rates. Moreover, an increased activity of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was found. These results demonstrate that β-TCP/TiO2 scaffolds have good potential as osteogenically active load-bearing scaffolds; moreover, given the high and interconnected macroporosity as well as the resorbability properties of β-TCP, these scaffolds may enhance in vivo osteointegration and promote the formation of new organized bone, thus resulting in very promising biomimetic scaffolds for long bone regeneration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

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