Robotic deposition and in vitro characterization of 3D gelatin−bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for biomedical applications

Authors

  • Chunxia Gao,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
    • Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
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  • Mohamed N. Rahaman,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0340
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  • Qiang Gao,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
    • Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
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  • Akira Teramoto,

    1. Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
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  • Koji Abe

    1. Department of Functional Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567, Japan
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  • How to cite this article: Gao C, Rahaman MN, Gao Q, Teramoto A, Abe K. 2013. Robotic deposition and in vitro characterization of 3D gelatin–bioactive glass hybrid scaffolds for biomedical applications. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013:101A:2027–2037.

Abstract

The development of inorganic−organic hybrid scaffolds with controllable degradation and bioactive properties is receiving considerable interest for bone and tissue regeneration. The objective of this study was to create hybrid scaffolds of gelatin and bioactive glass (BG) with a controlled, three-dimensional (3D) architecture by a combined sol−gel and robotic deposition (robocasting) method and evaluate their mechanical response, bioactivity, and response to cells in vitro. Inks for robotic deposition of the scaffolds were prepared by dissolving gelatin in a sol−gel precursor solution of the bioactive glass (70SiO2−25CaO−5P2O5; mol%) and aging the solution to form a gel with the requisite viscosity. After drying and crosslinking, the gelatin−BG scaffolds, with a grid-like architecture (filament diameter ∼350 µm; pore width ∼550 µm), showed an elasto−plastic response, with a compressive strength of 5.1 ± 0.6 MPa, in the range of values for human trabecular bone (2−12 MPa). When immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, the crosslinked scaffolds rapidly absorbed water (∼440% of its dry weight after 2 h) and showed an elastic response at deformations up to ∼60%. Immersion of the scaffolds in a simulated body fluid resulted in the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like surface layer within 5 days, indicating their bioactivity in vitro. The scaffolds supported the proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of osteogenic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, showing their biocompatibility. Altogether, the results indicate that these gelatin−BG hybrid scaffolds with a controlled, 3D architecture of inter-connected pores have potential for use as implants for bone regeneration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

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