Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: Material characterization and in vitro degradation

Authors

  • A. C. M. Renno,

    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Bioscience, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP). Av. Ana Costa, 95, Santos, SP,11050240, Brazil
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  • M. R. Nejadnik,

    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • F. C. J. van de Watering,

    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • M. C. Crovace,

    1. Department of Material Engineering, Vitreous Materials Laboratory (LaMaV), Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luís (SP-310), Km 235, 16015-223, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
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  • E. D. Zanotto,

    1. Department of Material Engineering, Vitreous Materials Laboratory (LaMaV), Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Rodovia Washington Luís (SP-310), Km 235, 16015-223, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
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  • J. P. M. Hoefnagels,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Group Mechanics of Materials, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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  • J. G. C. Wolke,

    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • J. A. Jansen,

    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • J. J. J. P. van den Beucken

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    • Department of Biomaterials (309), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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  • How to cite this article: Renno ACM, Nejadnik MR, van de Watering FCJ, Crovace MC, Zanotto ED, Hoefnagels JPM, Wolke JGC, Jansen JA, van den Beucken JJJP. 2013. Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: Material characterization and in vitro degradation. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2013:101A:2365–2373.

Abstract

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been widely used as an alternative to biological grafts due to their excellent osteoconductive properties. Although degradation has been improved by using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres as porogens, the biological performance of CPC/PLGA composites is insufficient to stimulate bone healing in large bone defects. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating osteopromotive bioactive glass (BG; up to 50 wt %) on setting properties, in vitro degradation behavior and morphological characteristics of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG. The results revealed that the initial and final setting time of the composites increased with increasing amounts of incorporated BG. The degradation test showed a BG-dependent increasing effect on pH of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds immersed in PBS compared to CPC and CPC/PLGA equivalents. Whereas no effects on mass loss were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds, CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds showed an accelerated mass loss compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Morphologically, no changes were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds. In contrast, CPC/PLGA and CPC/PLGA/BG showed apparent degradation of PLGA microspheres and faster loss of integrity for CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Based on the present in vitro results, it can be concluded that BG can be successfully introduced into CPC and CPC/PLGA without exceeding the setting time beyond clinically acceptable values. All injectable composites containing BG had suitable handling properties and specifically CPC/PLGA/BG showed an increased rate of mass loss. Future investigations should focus on translating these findings to in vivo applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

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