Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a promising material for use in minimally invasive surgery for bone defect repairs due to its bone-like apatitic final setting product, biocompatibility, bioactivity, self-setting characteristics, low setting temperature, adequate stiffness, and easy shaping into complicated geometrics. However, even though CPC is stable in vivo, the resorption rate of this bone cement is very slow and its long setting time poses difficulties for clinical use. Calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD) has been used as a filler material and/or as a replacement for cancellous bone grafts due to its biocompatibility. However, it is resorbed too quickly to be optimal for bone regeneration. This study examines the invivo response of a hydroxyapatite (HA), [apatitic phase (AP)]/calcium sulfate (CSD) composite using different ratios in the mandibular premolar sockets of beagles. The HA (AP)/CSD composite materials were prepared in the ratios of 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 and then implanted into the mandibular premolar sockets for terms of 5 and 10 weeks. The control socket was left empty. The study shows better new bone morphology and more new bone area in the histological and the histomorphometric study of the HA (AP)/CSD in the 50/50 ratio. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.