• biomaterial;
  • pattern recognition;
  • scavenger receptors;
  • toll-like receptors;
  • leukocyte activation

All biomedical materials are recognized as foreign entities by the host immune system despite the substantial range of different materials that have been developed by material scientists and engineers. Hydrophobic biomaterials, hydrogels, biomaterials with low protein binding surfaces, and those that readily adsorb a protein layer all seem to incite similar host responses in vivo that may differ in magnitude, but ultimately result in encapsulation by fibrotic tissue. The recognition of medical materials by the host is explained by the very intricate pattern recognition system made up of integrins, toll-like receptors, scavenger receptors, and other surface proteins that enable leukocytes to perceive almost any foreign body. In this review, we describe the various pattern recognition receptors and processes that occur on biomedical material surfaces that permit detection of a range of materials within the host. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 101A: 2740–2752, 2013.