The purpose of this study was to investigate osteogenesis using an artificial fusion protein (AFP) composed of modified bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) with a titanium (Ti)-binding peptide (TBP) motif on a Ti surface in vivo. In the in vivostudy, 5-μm thick Ti was coated with electron cyclotron resonance sputtering on a porous carbon scaffold which was then dipped in one of three different mixtures of collagen gel: (1) collagen gel only, (2) collagen gel with TBP, and (3) collagen gel with the AFP between BMP-2 and the TBP motif (AFP-TBP–BMP-2). These scaffolds were then implanted into rat abdominal muscles and were studied histologically at various times and the expression of several bone-related protein messenger RNAs (mRNAs) was also analyzed. The Ti-coated scaffold of the collagen gel with AFP-TBP–BMP-2 produced cartilage in the muscle and the expression of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, and runt-related gene 2 mRNAs was significantly increased. These results suggest that the scaffold of the collagen gel with AFP-TBP–BMP-2 accelerates osteogenesis in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 1180–1186, 2014.