Due to corrosion, a titanium implant surface can be a potential source for the release of micro (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs) into the biological environment. This work sought to evaluate the biokinetics of different sized titanium dioxide particles (TiO2) and their potential to cause cell damage. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with 150 nm, 10 nm, or 5nm TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 particles was evaluated in histologic sections of the liver, lung, and kidney and in blood cells at 3 and 12 months. Ultrastructural analysis of liver and lung tissue was performed by TEM, deposit concentration in tissues was determined spectroscopically, and oxidative metabolism was assessed by determining oxidative membrane damage, generation of superoxide anion (O2-), and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. TiO2 particles were observed inside mononuclear blood cells and in organ parenchyma at 3 and 12 months. TiO2 deposits were consistently larger in liver than in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophage O2- generation and average particle size correlated negatively (p < 0.05). NPs were more reactive and biopersistent in lung tissue than MPs. Antioxidant activity, particularly in the case of 5 nm particles, failed to compensate for membrane damage in liver cells; the damage was consistent with histological evidence of necrosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 1439–1448, 2014.