One of the major hurdles to cure cancer lies in the low potency of currently available drugs, which could eventually be solved by using more potent therapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins or genes. However, although these macromolecules possess greater potency inside the cancer cells, the barely permeable cell membrane remains a formidable barrier to exert their efficacy. A widely used strategy is to use cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to improve their intracellular uptake. Since the discovery of the first CPP, numerous CPPs have been derived from natural or synthesized products. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that those CPPs are highly efficient in transducing cargoes into almost all cell types. Therefore, to date, CPPs have been widely used for intracellular delivery of various cargoes, including peptides, proteins, genes, and even nanoparticles. In addition, recently, based on the successes of CPPs in cellular studies, their applications in vivo have been actively pursued. This review will focus on the advanced applications of CPP-based in vivo delivery of therapeutics (e.g., small molecule drugs, proteins, and genes). In addition, we will highlight certain updated applications of CPPs for intracellular delivery of nanoparticulate drug carriers, as well as several “smart” strategies for tumor targeted delivery of CPP-cargoes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 575–587, 2014.