These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxicity of graphene nanoflakes evaluated by cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing
Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
Volume 102, Issue 7, pages 2288–2294, July 2014
How to Cite
How to cite this article: 2014. Toxicity of graphene nanoflakes evaluated by cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 2014: 102A: 2288–2294., , , , .
- Issue published online: 23 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 JUL 2013 05:55AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 17 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 11 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Received: 3 APR 2013
- Basic Science Research Program. Grant Numbers: 2009-0083540, 2012R1A1A3008822
- WCU Program. Grant Number: R32-2008-000-10124-0
- Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST), Korea. Grant Number: NRF-2011-355-D00098
- electrochemical impedance biosensor;
- ITO electrode;
- HeLa cells;
- toxicity analysis
Graphene nanoflake toxicity was analyzed using cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing with interdigitated indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes installed in a custom-built mini- incubator positioned on an inverted optical microscope. Sensing with electrochemical measurements from interdigitated ITO electrodes was highly linear (R2 = 0.93 and 0.96 for anodic peak current (Ipa) and cathodic peak current (Ipc), respectively). Size-dependent analysis of Graphene nanoflake toxicity was carried out in a mini-incubator system with cultured HeLa cells treated with Graphene nanoflakes having an average size of 80 or 30 nm for one day. Biological assays of cell proliferation and viability complemented electrochemical impedance measurements. The increased toxicity of smaller Graphene nanoflakes (30 nm) as measured by electrochemical impedance sensing and optical monitoring of treated cells was consistent with the biological assay results. Cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing can be used to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials with different biomedical and environmental applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2288–2294, 2014.