• graphene;
  • electrochemical impedance biosensor;
  • ITO electrode;
  • HeLa cells;
  • toxicity analysis


Graphene nanoflake toxicity was analyzed using cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing with interdigitated indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes installed in a custom-built mini- incubator positioned on an inverted optical microscope. Sensing with electrochemical measurements from interdigitated ITO electrodes was highly linear (R2 = 0.93 and 0.96 for anodic peak current (Ipa) and cathodic peak current (Ipc), respectively). Size-dependent analysis of Graphene nanoflake toxicity was carried out in a mini-incubator system with cultured HeLa cells treated with Graphene nanoflakes having an average size of 80 or 30 nm for one day. Biological assays of cell proliferation and viability complemented electrochemical impedance measurements. The increased toxicity of smaller Graphene nanoflakes (30 nm) as measured by electrochemical impedance sensing and optical monitoring of treated cells was consistent with the biological assay results. Cell-based electrochemical impedance biosensing can be used to assess the toxicity of nanomaterials with different biomedical and environmental applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2288–2294, 2014.