We investigated the biological behavior of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) induced to differentiate into Schwann cells (SCs) on the surfaces of titanium discs. Two types of titanium surfaces, sand blasted and acid etched (SA) and smooth polished, were prepared on titanium discs, and the behavior of SC-like cells on these discs was investigated. Cell morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and cell proliferation was assessed using assays for methylthiazol tetrazolium metabolism and total protein content. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were used to determine the gene and protein expression, respectively, of SC markers by PDLSCs. Differentiated PDLSCs could adhere, proliferate, differentiate, and express SC marker genes and proteins on the prepared titanium surfaces, and the highest levels of SC marker protein expression were observed in PDLSCs on SA titanium surfaces. SA titanium surfaces show good biocompatibility for the SC-like cells, which is important for the application of these cells in peri-implant nerve tissue engineering, through which they are expected to improve the osseoperception of dental implants. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2805–2812, 2014.