Cellular proliferation, cellular viability, and biocompatibility of HA-ZnO composites

Authors

  • Naresh Saha,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory for Biomaterials, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016, India
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  • Ashutosh K. Dubey,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory for Biomaterials, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016, India
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  • Bikramjit Basu

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory for Biomaterials, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016, India
    • Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory for Biomaterials, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016, India
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  • How to cite this article: Saha N, Dubey AK, Basu B. 2012. Cellular proliferation, cellular viability, and biocompatibility of HA-ZnO composites. J Biomed Mater Res Part B 2012:100B:256-264.

  • Laboratory for Biomaterials, Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, India

Abstract

One of the important issues in the development of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based biomaterials is the prosthetic infection, which limits wider use of monolithic HA despite superior cellular response. Recently, we reported that ZnO addition to HA can induce bactericidal property. It is therefore important to assess how ZnO addition influences the cytotoxicity property and cell adhesion/proliferation on HA-ZnO composite surfaces in vitro. In the above perspective, the objective of this study is to investigate the cell type and material composition dependent cellular proliferation and viability of pressureless sintered HA-ZnO composites. The combination of cell viability data as well as morphological observations of cultured human osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells and mouse fibroblast L929 cells suggests that HA-ZnO composites containing 10 Wt % or lower ZnO exhibit the ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation. Both SaOS2 and L929 cells exhibit extensive multidirectional network of actin cytoskeleton and cell flattening on the lower ZnO containing (≤10 Wt %) HA-ZnO composites. The in vitro results illustrate how variation in ZnO content can influence significantly the cell vitality, as evaluated using MTT biochemical assay. Also, the critical statistical analysis reveals that ZnO addition needs to be carefully tailored to ensure good in vitro cytocompatibility. The underlying reasons for difference in biological properties are analyzed. It is suggested that surface wettability as well as dissolution of ZnO, both contribute to the observed differences in cellular viability and proliferation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2012.

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