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Keywords:

  • animal model;
  • dental implant;
  • collagen;
  • extracellular matrix;
  • histomorphometry

Abstract

Biological implant surface coatings are an emerging technology to increase bone formation. Such an approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the maxilla. In the present study, we hypothesized that the coating of titanium implants with components of the organic extracellular matrix increases bone formation and implant stability compared to an uncoated reference. The implants were coated using collagen-I with either two different concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) or two differentially sulfated hyaluronans. Implant coatings were characterized biochemically and with atomic force microscopy. Histomorphometry was used to assess bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone-volume density (BVD) after 4 and 8 weeks of submerged healing in the maxilla of 20 minipigs. Further, implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Implants containing the lower CS concentration had significantly more BIC, compared to the uncoated reference at both times of interest. No significant increase was measured from week 4 to 8. Differences in BVD and RFA were statistically not significant. A higher concentration of CS and the application of sulfated hyaluronans showed no comparable increase in BIC. This study demonstrates a positive effect of a specific collagen–glycosaminoglycan combination on early bone formation in vivo. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 331–341, 2012.