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Histological and biomechanical analysis of porous additive manufactured implants made by direct metal laser sintering: A pilot study in sheep

Authors

  • Stefan Stübinger,

    Corresponding author
    1. Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty ZH, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    2. Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine (CABMM), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Isabel Mosch,

    1. Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty ZH, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Pierfrancesco Robotti,

    1. Eurocoating S.p.A. Via Al Dos de la Roda 60, Trento, Italy
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  • Michéle Sidler,

    1. Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty ZH, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Karina Klein,

    1. Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty ZH, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • Stephen J. Ferguson,

    1. Institute for Surgical Biotechnology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, CH-3014 Bern, Switzerland
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  • Brigitte von Rechenberg

    1. Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty ZH, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    2. Center for Applied Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine (CABMM), Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
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Abstract

Objectives: It was the aim of this study to analyze osseointegrative properties of porous additive manufactured titanium implants made by direct metal laser sintering in a sheep model after an implantation period of 2 and 8 weeks.

Material and Methods: Three different types of implants were placed in the pelvis of six sheep. In each sheep were placed three standard machined (M), three sandblasted and etched (SE), and three porous additive manufactured (AM) implants. Of these three implants (one per type) were examined histologically and six implants were tested biomechanically. Additionally a semiquantitative histomorphometrical and qualitative fluorescent microscopic analysis were performed.

Results: After 2 and 8 weeks bone-to-implant-contact (BIC) values of the AM surface (2w: 20.49% ± 5.18%; 8w: 43.91% ± 9.69%) revealed no statistical significant differences in comparison to the M (2w: 20.33% ± 11.50%; 8w: 25.33% ± 4.61%) and SE (2w: 43.67 ± 12.22%; 8w: 53.33 ± 8.96%) surfaces. AM surface showed the highest increase of the BIC between the two observation time points. Considering the same implantation period histomorphometry and fluorescent labelling disclosed no significant differences in the bone surrounding the three implants groups. In contrast Removal-torque-test showed a significant improve in fixation strength (P ≤ 0.001) for the AM (1891.82 ± 308, 44 Nmm) surface after eight weeks in comparison to the M (198.93±88,04 Nmm) and SE (730.08 ± 151,89 Nmm) surfaces.

Conclusion: All three surfaces (M, SE, and AM) showed sound osseointegration. AM implants may offer a possible treatment option in clinics for patients with compromised bone situations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 101B: 1154–1163, 2013.

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