Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are established in surgery as temporary bone replacement materials. The most common and important class of CPC, transformed into nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite after setting, is characterized by good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, acceleration of remodelling is in the focus of ongoing research. In the present study, the bone healing efficacy of Biocement D (BioD) modified with mineralized collagen alone (BioD/coll) or in combination with osteocalcin (BioD/coll/OC), O-phospho-L-serine (BioD/coll/PS), sodium citrate (BioD/coll/cit), and polylactide (BioD/coll/PL), respectively, was evaluated in a large animal model. Resorption of the bone substitutes and new bone formation were studied in cyst-like jaw defects of minipigs after filling with the unmodified BioD and the modified BioD variants, respectively. Histomorphometric analysis revealed small differences between the different cement types with respect to resorption. However, new bone formation was improved in case of defects repaired with BioD/coll/OC and BioD/coll/PS and slightly improved in case of BioD/coll and BioD/coll/PL. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 101B: 1410–1418, 2013.