In this article, a novel composite of copper (Cu) nanoparticles and polydimethiylsiloxane (PDMS) has been prepared and investigated for the potential application in Cu-containing intrauterine device. The Cu/PDMS composite with various mass fraction of Cu nanoparticles was fabricated via the hot vulcanizing process. The chemical structures and surface morphologies of the Cu/PDMS composites were characterized confirming the physical interaction between Cu nanoparticles and PDMS. The surface morphology observation using scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope showed the agglomeration of Cu nanoparticles in PDMS matrix and the distribution of the agglomerations was more uniform with increased amount of Cu nanoparticles. The cupric ion release behaviors of the Cu/PDMS composites with different amounts of Cu nanoparticles were investigated in simulated uterine fluid at 37°C for 150 days. The corrosion morphologies of the Cu/PDMS composites were also characterized. Both the burst release rate of the cupric ion in the first few days and the steady release rate after 30-day immersion were improved. The cytotoxicity test has been done for the Cu/PDMS composites. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 101B: 1428–1436, 2013.